Rāmganj Mandi, India
Rāmganj Mandi, India

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Kumar D.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Kumar D.,Himachal Pradesh University | Verma R.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Verma R.,Himachal Pradesh University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

A solid state fermentation process was tried for the production of citric acid from apple pomace left after juice extraction using Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem MTCC 281 spores as inoculum (36.8 × 104 spores/100 g of pomace). The yield of citric acid was optimized by varying the amount of methanol (1-5% v/w), temperature (25-35°C) and time of incubation (1-7 days) for fermentation process. Optimum yield of citric acid (4.6 g/100 g of pomace) was recorded with 4% (v/w) methanol after 5 days of incubation at 30°C. © Association of Food Scientists and Technologists (India), Mysore.


Prakash C.,Institute of Business Management | Sharma I.,Institute of Business Management | Kumar D.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A thermostable alkaline protease producing strain identified as Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9226 was isolated from cow dung compost sample. Culture conditions were optimized for protease production. Maximum enzyme production was detected in stationary phase with Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9226 at 45° C, pH 9.0 with 5% inoculum after 32 h incubation. The optimum temperature and pH for the activity of this protease were 45°C and 9.0 respectively. Out of various carbon and nitrogen source tested, glucose (1%) and yeast extract (0.5%)+peptone (5%) proved to be very good source/s of carbon and nitrogen respectively for the production of protease by this organism. The enzyme was stable from pH 7.0 to 11.0 at temperature 30° C to 60° C. Activity of protease increased in presence of 4mM Mg2+ (107%) and was slightly effected by EDTA 50mM (79%) and completely inhibited by SDS. The enzyme activity was stable up to in 15% of H2O2 and sodium hypochlorite and inhibited at higher concentrations. The enzyme was very stable in benzene (97%) followed by methanol (86%). Complete removal of gelatin from X-ray films was achieved in 25 min at 45°C.


Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Avasthi S.,Jiwaji University | Sharma A.,Jiwaji University | Bhadauria R.,Jiwaji University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredents of triphala chuma, ie. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Teminalia bellirica (Gaem.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Teminalia chebula (Retz.) (Hamda), collected kom the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A.fZavus, A. fumigahrs, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i e veIy low to veIy high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96+7.59%) was obsenred to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95+7.59%) and powder (25.07+6.05%). Teminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active agaimt the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective agaimt the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were obsenred to be ineffective agaimt the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relatiomhp between antifungal potential of herbal dmgs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Kant M.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Thakur Y.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

A systemic study of fungal endophytes associated with different plant parts of Cannabis sativa and their antifungal activity was investigated in the present study. A total of 281 plant segments, including 91 leaves, 93 stem and 97 petioles samples, were screened for the isolation of endophytic fungi. Totally, 212 (77.65%) segments were found colonised by different fungi. Highest colonisation frequency were observed in stem parts (84.94%), then leaves (82.41%) and lowest 59.79% in petiole. Total eight fungal genera belonging to 12 species were isolated. Aspergillus is recorded as the most frequently occurring genera with three species Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans followed by Penicillium with two species Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium citrinum, while Phoma, Rhizopus, Colletotrichum, Cladosporium and Curvularia with single species. The antifungal potential of A. niger and A. flavus - two most frequently isolated endophytic fungi - was evaluated against two common plant pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Curvularia lunata. Different plant and fungal extracts individually and in combinations showed variations in antifungal activity against both the pathogens. The primary results obtained on antifungal activity of endophytes show their possible role in plant defence mechanism but it is a preliminary approach and more extensive research is still required. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Fungal endophytes were isolated from surface sterilised leaf segments of five medicinal plants collected from Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India. A total of 373 fungal strains belonging to 15 fungal genera and 18 species, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. clavatus, A. variecolor, Penicillium chrsogenum, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Haplosporium sp., Phoma sp., Nigrospora sp., Colletotrichum sp., Cladosporium sp., Stemphylium sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Trichoderma sp., Rhizopus sp. and some sterile mycelium were isolated from all the plants. The relative frequency, isolation rate and colonisation rates of endophytes were used to study the endophytic diversity. The results showed that the highest colonisation rate (93.05%) was observed in Adhathoda vasica, while it was 91.66% in Ocimum sanctum, 85% in Viola odorata, 82.81% Cannabis sativa and lowest (61.11%) in Withania somnifera. Moreover, reading the richness and diversity of the endophytic fungi, the highest was obtained for O. sanctum, W. somnifera and C. sativa having eight species each, while lowest (6 and 4) was obtained from A. vasica and V. odorata, respectively. As the role of endophytic organisms in defensive mechanisms of plants is now well established, the present study is an important step to find new and interesting endophytes among the medicinal plants. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Kumar R.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Sagar C.,Jiwaji University | Sharma D.,Jaya Arogya Hospital | Kishor P.,Jiwaji University
Hemoglobin | Year: 2015

The concurrence of malaria and hemoglobinopathies, observed in malaria endemic regions, reflects the phenomenon of natural selection. Since the life cycle of the malaria parasite has an erythrocytic stage, abnormalities in the red blood cells (RBCs) hinder the parasite's survival in the human host. Hemoglobin (Hb) variants affect the life span of RBCs and thus lower the chance of infection by the parasite. While a change in just one of the Hb genes offers some protection against malaria, change in both alleles results in β-thalassemia major (β-TM). A striking geographical heterogeneity of β-thalassemia (β-thal) has been observed. Moving from Mexico in the west to China towards the east, the spectrum of mutations in the β-globin gene has been seen to vary. In the western end of the thalassemia belt, defects in the first intervening sequence (IVS-I) and exon 2 of the β-globin gene are more common, while on the eastern coast, IVS-II and exon 1 are also vulnerable to mutations. The worldwide increase in the incidence of β-TM mandates the need for efficient measures to reduce β-thal births, and the geographical heterogeneity of β-thal alleles reduces the burden of genetic testing of fetuses suspected of carrying a mutant allele. In the present review, the common mutations in the global thalassemia belt have been illustrated, and the possible factors that affect the mutagenicity of sites have been discussed. A biogeorgraphic analysis that may provide insight into the non biological factors influencing different loci in the β-globin gene in different geographical regions is suggested. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Kumar A.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Gularia R.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Bhardwaj A.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2013

The antibacterial activity of various extracts of the latex of Ficus palmata Forsk. was studied against two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) using disc diffusion method. Methanolic extract of latex showed significant antibacterial activity against both the test organisms. The zone of inhibition by latex was found to be significantly higher than the zone of inhibition shown by tetracycline. The magnitude of antibacterial activity of latex and its extracts found to be more against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) as compared to Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium).


Avasthi S.,Jiwaji University | Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Bhadauria R.,Jiwaji University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Leaf spot disease of A. vera was observed in nurseries of Gwalior city afterthe post-rainy season. As the disease progressed, the tip of the leaf shrank, then dried and eventually broke. The causal agent was identified as Phoma betae A.B. Frank. This is the first report of leaf spot disease on Aloe vera caused by P. betae in India. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Avasthi S.,Jiwaji University | Bhadauria R.,Jiwaji University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Leaf spot symptoms were observed on the leaves of Boehravia diffusa L. plants from different regions of Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India. The symptoms initially appeared as a small light-pale coloured, circular spots enlarge gradually and ultimately leading to drying of the leaves. The disease was found to be caused by a fungus. The fungus was cultured on potato dextrose agar medium and identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. According to the literature, this is thefirst report of anthracnose disease of B. diffusa caused by C. gloeosporioides in India. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2013

The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage.

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