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Rāmganj Mandi, India

Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Fungal endophytes were isolated from surface sterilised leaf segments of five medicinal plants collected from Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India. A total of 373 fungal strains belonging to 15 fungal genera and 18 species, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. clavatus, A. variecolor, Penicillium chrsogenum, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Haplosporium sp., Phoma sp., Nigrospora sp., Colletotrichum sp., Cladosporium sp., Stemphylium sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Trichoderma sp., Rhizopus sp. and some sterile mycelium were isolated from all the plants. The relative frequency, isolation rate and colonisation rates of endophytes were used to study the endophytic diversity. The results showed that the highest colonisation rate (93.05%) was observed in Adhathoda vasica, while it was 91.66% in Ocimum sanctum, 85% in Viola odorata, 82.81% Cannabis sativa and lowest (61.11%) in Withania somnifera. Moreover, reading the richness and diversity of the endophytic fungi, the highest was obtained for O. sanctum, W. somnifera and C. sativa having eight species each, while lowest (6 and 4) was obtained from A. vasica and V. odorata, respectively. As the role of endophytic organisms in defensive mechanisms of plants is now well established, the present study is an important step to find new and interesting endophytes among the medicinal plants. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Avasthi S.,Jiwaji University | Sharma A.,Jiwaji University | Bhadauria R.,Jiwaji University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredents of triphala chuma, ie. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Teminalia bellirica (Gaem.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Teminalia chebula (Retz.) (Hamda), collected kom the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A.fZavus, A. fumigahrs, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i e veIy low to veIy high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96+7.59%) was obsenred to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95+7.59%) and powder (25.07+6.05%). Teminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active agaimt the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective agaimt the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were obsenred to be ineffective agaimt the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relatiomhp between antifungal potential of herbal dmgs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Prakash C.,Institute of Business Management | Sharma I.,Institute of Business Management | Kumar D.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A thermostable alkaline protease producing strain identified as Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9226 was isolated from cow dung compost sample. Culture conditions were optimized for protease production. Maximum enzyme production was detected in stationary phase with Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9226 at 45° C, pH 9.0 with 5% inoculum after 32 h incubation. The optimum temperature and pH for the activity of this protease were 45°C and 9.0 respectively. Out of various carbon and nitrogen source tested, glucose (1%) and yeast extract (0.5%)+peptone (5%) proved to be very good source/s of carbon and nitrogen respectively for the production of protease by this organism. The enzyme was stable from pH 7.0 to 11.0 at temperature 30° C to 60° C. Activity of protease increased in presence of 4mM Mg2+ (107%) and was slightly effected by EDTA 50mM (79%) and completely inhibited by SDS. The enzyme activity was stable up to in 15% of H2O2 and sodium hypochlorite and inhibited at higher concentrations. The enzyme was very stable in benzene (97%) followed by methanol (86%). Complete removal of gelatin from X-ray films was achieved in 25 min at 45°C. Source

Kumar R.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Sagar C.,Jiwaji University | Sharma D.,Gajra Raja Medical College | Kishor P.,Jiwaji University
Hemoglobin | Year: 2015

The concurrence of malaria and hemoglobinopathies, observed in malaria endemic regions, reflects the phenomenon of natural selection. Since the life cycle of the malaria parasite has an erythrocytic stage, abnormalities in the red blood cells (RBCs) hinder the parasite's survival in the human host. Hemoglobin (Hb) variants affect the life span of RBCs and thus lower the chance of infection by the parasite. While a change in just one of the Hb genes offers some protection against malaria, change in both alleles results in β-thalassemia major (β-TM). A striking geographical heterogeneity of β-thalassemia (β-thal) has been observed. Moving from Mexico in the west to China towards the east, the spectrum of mutations in the β-globin gene has been seen to vary. In the western end of the thalassemia belt, defects in the first intervening sequence (IVS-I) and exon 2 of the β-globin gene are more common, while on the eastern coast, IVS-II and exon 1 are also vulnerable to mutations. The worldwide increase in the incidence of β-TM mandates the need for efficient measures to reduce β-thal births, and the geographical heterogeneity of β-thal alleles reduces the burden of genetic testing of fetuses suspected of carrying a mutant allele. In the present review, the common mutations in the global thalassemia belt have been illustrated, and the possible factors that affect the mutagenicity of sites have been discussed. A biogeorgraphic analysis that may provide insight into the non biological factors influencing different loci in the β-globin gene in different geographical regions is suggested. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Avasthi S.,Jiwaji University | Gautam A.K.,Abhilashi Institute of Life science | Bhadauria R.,Jiwaji University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Leaf spot disease of A. vera was observed in nurseries of Gwalior city afterthe post-rainy season. As the disease progressed, the tip of the leaf shrank, then dried and eventually broke. The causal agent was identified as Phoma betae A.B. Frank. This is the first report of leaf spot disease on Aloe vera caused by P. betae in India. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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