Aberystwyth University is a public research university located in Aberystwyth, Wales. Aberystwyth was a founding Member Institution of the former federal University of Wales. There are over 7,500 students in the University's three main faculties of arts, social science and the science.Founded in 1872 as University College Wales, Aberystwyth it became a founder member of the University of Wales in 1894 and changed its name to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. In the mid-1990s, the university again changed its name to the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. On 1 September 2007, the University of Wales ceased to be a federal university and Aberystwyth became independent again.The QS World University Rankings placed Aberystwyth in the 451-500 bracket in 2012, 551-600 in 2013, and 601-650 in 2014. The Guardian University League Table 2015 ranks it 106th out of 116 UK universities, down from 88th in the 2014 table. The Complete University Guide's 2015 table ranks it 87th out of 123 British universities, down from 70th in 2014. Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2016
The Arctic plays a key role in the Earths climate system and is an area of growing strategic importance for European policy. In this ETN, we will train the next generation of Arctic microbiology and biogeochemistry experts who, through their unique understanding of the Arctic environment and the factors that impact ecosystem and organism response to the warming Arctic, will be able to respond to the need for leadership from public, policy and commercial interests. The training and research programme of MicroArctic is made up of seven interlinked Work Packages (WP). WP1 to WP4 are research work packages at the cutting edge of Arctic microbiology and biogeochemistry and these will be supported by three overarching WPs (WP5-7) associated with the management, training and dissemination of results. WP1 will deliver information about the role of external inputs (e.g., atmospheric) of nutrients and microorganism that drive biogeochemical processes in relation to annual variation in Arctic microbial activity and biogeochemical processes. WP2 will explore ecosystem response on time scales of 100s of years to these inputs using a chrnosequence approach in the already changing Arctic. The effect of time and season and the warming of the Arctic on ecosystem functioning and natural resources will be quantified through geochemical analyses and next generation multi-omics approaches. Complementing WP1 and WP2, WP3 will focus on organism response and adaptation using a range of biochemical, molecular, experimental and culturing approaches. WP4 will address specific applied issues such as colonisation by pathogenic organisms and biotechnological exploitation of Arctic ecosystems. MicroArctic will bring together interdisciplinary experts from both the academic and non-academic sectors across Europe into a network of 20 Institutions across 11 countries.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.23M | Year: 2015
The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will address key scientific and technological challenges facing modern planetary science by providing open access to state-of-the-art research data, models and facilities across the European Research Area. Its Transnational Access activities will provide access to world-leading laboratory facilities that simulate conditions found on planetary bodies as well as specific analogue field sites for Mars, Europa and Titan. Its Virtual Access activities will make available the diverse datasets and visualisation tools needed for comparing and understanding planetary environments in the Solar System and beyond. By providing the underpinning facilities that European planetary scientists need to conduct their research, EPN2020-RI will create cooperation and effective synergies between its different components: space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory and field experiments, numerical modelling, and technology. EPN2020-RI builds on the foundations of successful FP6 and FP7 Europlanet programmes that established the Europlanet brand and built structures that will be used in the Networking Activities of EPN2020-RI to coordinate the European planetary science communitys research. It will disseminate its results to a wide range of stakeholders including industry, policy makers and, crucially, both the wider public and the next generation of researchers and opinion formers, now in education. As an Advanced Infrastructure we place particular emphasis on widening the participation of previously under-represented research communities and stakeholders. We will include new countries and Inclusiveness Member States, via workshops, team meetings, and personnel exchanges, to broaden/widen/expand and improve the scientific and innovation impact of the infrastructure. EPN2020-RI will therefore build a truly pan-European community that shares common goals, facilities, personnel, data and IP across national boundaries
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REV-INEQUAL-07-2016 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2017
IMAJINE aims to formulate new integrative policy mechanisms to enable European, national and regional government agencies to more effectively address territorial inequalities within the European Union. It responds to evidence that spatial inequalities within the EU are increasing, contrary to the principle of territorial cohesion embedded as a third dimension of the European Social Model in the Treaty of Lisbon, and is particularly timely in examining the geographically differentiated impacts of the post-2008 economic crisis and the adoption of austerity policies. IMAJINE uniquely proposes to address the problem of territorial inequalities through an inter-disciplinary and multi-scalar approach that integrates perspectives from economics, human geography, political science and sociology and combines macro-scale econometric analysis and the generation and analysis of new quantitative survey data with regionally-focused qualitative empirical case study research in 11 EU member states; delivered by a multi-disciplinary and multi-national consortium. As such the research builds on the conceptual and methodological state of the art in several disciplines and advances conceptual understanding and the empirical knowledge base by producing new primary data, applying new analytical tests to secondary data and integrating the results along with insights from relational geographical theory and the concept of spatial justice. In particular, the centrality of spatial justice emphasizes the political as well as economic dimensions of territorial inequalities, and IMAJINE will move beyond existing knowledge by considering relationships between measured and perceived inequalities, models of multi-level policy-making and public service delivery, and support for territorial autonomy movements. IMAJINE will further translate these scientific insights into policy applications through participatory scenario building exercises with governance and civil society stakeholders.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-5c-2015 | Award Amount: 2.99M | Year: 2016
FLOWERED objective is to contribute to the development of a sustainable water management system in areas affected by fluoride (F) contamination in water, soils and food in the African Rift Valley countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania), thus to improve living standards (environmental, health and food security) of its population. FLOWERED aims to study, test and implement innovative defluoridation technologies for drinking and irrigation water that will mainly operate at small village scale and to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale. On the basis of the complexity of the issue of water de-fluoridation, the proposed scientific approach in FLOWERED is based on a detailed knowledge of the geological and hydrogeological setting that controls contamination of water that constitute the prerequisite for the implementation of a sustainable water management and for the proposal of sustainable and suitable strategies for water sanitation and agricultural system. Innovative agricultural practices will be assessed, aiming to mitigate the impacts of F contamination of water and soil on productivity of selected food and forage crops and dairy cattle health and production. The development of an innovative and shared Geo-data system will support the integrated, sustainable and participative management system. FLOWERED, focusing on innovative technologies and practices and taking into account local experiences, will implement an integrated water and agriculture management system and will enable local communities to manage water resources, starting from using efficient defluoridation techniques and applying sustainable agricultural practices. The integrated approaches improve knowledge for EU partners, local researchers, farmers and decision makers. The Project through the involvement of SMEs will strengthen the development co-innovative demonstration processes as well as new market opportunities.
Thomas H.,Aberystwyth University
New Phytologist | Year: 2013
This review considers the relationship between the lifespan of an individual plant and the longevity of its component cells, tissues and organs. It begins by defining the terms senescence, growth, development, turnover, ageing, death and program. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulating phase change from juvenility to maturity influence directly the capacity for responding to senescence signals and factors determining reproduction-related patterns of deteriorative ageing and death. Senescence is responsive to communication between sources and sinks in which sugar signalling and hormonal regulation play central roles. Monocarpy and polycarpy represent contrasting outcomes of the balance between the determinacy of apical meristems and source-sink cross-talk. Even extremely long-lived perennials sustain a high degree of meristem integrity. Factors associated with deteriorative ageing in animals, such as somatic mutation, telomere attrition and the costs of repair and maintenance, do not seem to be particularly significant for plant lifespan, but autophagy-related regulatory networks integrated with nutrient signalling may have a part to play. Size is an important influence on physiological function and fitness of old trees. Self-control of modular structure allows trees to sustain viability over prolonged lifespans. Different turnover patterns of structural modules can account for the range of plant life histories and longevities. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 812.86K | Year: 2017
Some 70% of the words used in modern English can be traced back to a common source: Anglo-Norman, the dialect of French introduced into the British Isles as a result of the Norman Conquest of 1066 which was to serve as a language of literature, law, commerce, education, and administration into the late Middle Ages. Wherever one looks - historical chronicles, medicinal treatises, legal records - the central role played by Anglo-Norman in the life of medieval Britain is evident. The most comprehensive account of the vocabulary of this language is the Anglo-Norman Dictionary (AND). The idea of the AND was conceived over seventy years ago, and culminated originally in a series of volumes printed between 1977-92 (AND1). This was soon overtaken by a thorough programme of revision to produce a widely expanded dictionary - freely available online since 2006 (www.anglo-norman.net). As the recognised authority on the Anglo-Norman lexis, crowned by the award of the Prix Honoré Chavée by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris (2011), the online AND has become an indispensable tool not only for a broad congregation of academic specialists such as linguists, lexicographers, historians, and literary scholars, but also for a constant influx of non-specialists, such as teachers, pupils, and amateur historians and genealogists, wishing to know more about this crucial aspect of their heritage. The current project will continue the revision of AND in two key ways. First, following the successful completion of the revision of the entries for letters A-Q, the AND will now revise letters R & S over a 48-month period, at a rate of approximately 750 entries per annum. The revision process re-investigates and improves every current AND1 entry for semantic detail and textual coverage, and adds new entries for the many new words which have been newly located. For the sake of illustration, in the recently revised N- entries, the number of substantive entries more than doubl(from 339 to 887), as did the number of senses (931 to 2088), with four times the number of illustrative citations (from 1075 to 4218). The revision of R & S will also raise their entries to the higher academic standards which distinguish the online ANDs entries from those of AND1 and make it a versatile tool for studying Anglo-Norman in its multilingual and sociological context. These include the systematic cross-referencing of all entries to those in dictionaries of medieval French, Latin, and English; the addition of searchable usage labels in definitions, which allow the analysis of the language through domains, or onomasiological fields; and the addition of editorial commentaries highlighting linguistic, semantic, or historical aspects of more complex entries. Second, the online AND will undergo a significant transformation into a historical dictionary. The AND was originally conceived as a semantic dictionary, intended to show the meanings of words but not their development over time. Increasingly, as the online AND has incorporated hyperlinks to cognate dictionaries which outline the diachronic development of their entries, users have assumed, despite warnings to the contrary, that the organisation of the online AND is also historic and provides the earliest attestations of words. In order to reinforce the central position of the AND in the study of the Anglo-Norman language, this project will introduce a diachronic dimension into the revision of R & S, by locating and highlighting earliest attestations of words and senses. This approach will also be applied retrospectively through a semi-automated process to the existing online entries for A-Q and U. This innovation will ensure a better understanding of the development and use of Anglo-Norman, and will have important benefits for our perception of the history of the English language and of the nature of medieval Britains multilingual society.
Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 483.00K | Year: 2017
Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism used by flowering plants to prevent self-fertilization, which would otherwise result in undesirable inbreeding and loss of plant fitness. For this reason, SI has made a significant contribution to the evolutionary success of flowering plants. After pollination, SI utilizes cell-cell recognition to prevent self-fertilization by inhibition of pollen tube growth, which is crucial for the delivery of sperm cells to the egg cell inside the pistil. This involves a highly specific interaction between a pistil-expressed protein and a cognate pollen protein that results in recognition and inhibition of genetically identical or self- (incompatible) pollen, but not cross (compatible) pollen. In Papaver rhoeas (field poppy), the stigma of the pistil secretes a small protein (PrsS) which acts as a signalling ligand. Upon pollination, PrsS interacts specifically with self pollen expressing the SI receptor (PrpS), allowing pollen to distinguish between self and non-self female partners. This interaction is the critical step in cell-cell recognition and determining acceptance or rejection which triggers a complex network of signalling in the incompatible pollen and results in pollen being inhibited and told to commit suicide: Programmed Cell Death (PCD). PCD is essential for a range of processes in all higher organisms. It is vital for normal plant development, playing a decisive role in the life cycle of plants, including fertilisation, embryo development, and rejection of self-pollen. They all depend on tightly controlled and executed PCD. The scientists involved have played a pioneering role in our understanding of plant PCD. Major breakthroughs have come from establishing that key core components of animal PCD machinery are similar to those in plants. However, our understanding of the detailed molecular regulation and downstream processes of plant PCD are still largely unknown and lag behind that of PCD in animal cells. We have made several recent breakthroughs in our PCD studies in Papaver SI that form the basis of this project. SI triggers dramatic changes of the actin cytoskeleton, an internal protein structure that helps a cell with shape, support, and movement. We recently discovered that SI leads to dramatic acidification of the cell content (cytosol). Other recent findings suggest the involvement of a special type of endocytosis, a process by which cells absorb molecules. This project will carry out the first live-cell imaging studies to discover exactly what happens to the actin cytoskeleton during SI. Other studies, using genetics, microscopy and biochemistry will investigate exactly how these different processes mechanistically control SI-induced PCD. These fundamental studies are likely to generate excitement in the scientific community as they will provide important mechanistic insights into the role of actin in SI-PCD and the role of [pH]cyt in mediating this. Identifying links between some of these processes will be completely novel for plant cells. Analyzing key molecular mechanisms involved in regulating SI-PCD will be important for our general understanding of evolutionary conservation of PCD. On a practical note, understanding the mechanisms involved in SI-PCD can lead to applications useful to plant breeding. Fertility and seed set are critical for crop yield and thus Food Security. The transfer of SI-PCD traits into food crops could potentially help plant breeders develop F1 hybrid seeds, which produce bigger and more productive F1 hybrid plants, more efficiently and economically. Currently, hand-emasculation is used to produce F1 hybrid seeds, which is time-consuming and expensive. Introducing SI-PCD into a crop species allows it to be crossed without any emasculation, as no self-pollen can fertilize these plants. Thus, utilization of knowledge on SI-PCD provides a potential alternative means to breed F1 hybrid crops.