McAdam E.,University of Swansea |
Haboubi H.N.,University of Swansea |
Griffiths A.P.,Abertawe BroMorgannwg Health Board |
Baxter J.N.,Abertawe BroMorgannwg Health Board |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) incidence is rising and prognosis is poor. Understanding the molecular basis of this malignancy is key to finding new prevention and treatment strategies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the primary cause of OA, usually managed with acid suppression therapy. However, this often does little to control carcinogenic bile acid reflux. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of OA and its activity is associated with a poor response to chemotherapy, making it an attractive therapeutic target. We sought to decipher the role of different bile acids in NF-κB activation in oesophageal cell lines using short, physiologically relevant exposure times. The effect of an acidic or neutral extracellular pH was investigated concurrently, to mimic in vivo conditions associated with or without acid suppression. We found that some bile acids activated NF-κB to a greater extent when combined with acid, whereas others did so in its absence, at neutral pH. The precise composition of an individual's reflux, coupled with whether they are taking acid suppressants may therefore dictate the extent of NF-κB activation in the oesophagus, and hence the likelihood of histological progression and chemotherapy success. Regardless of pH, the kinase inhibitor of κB kinase was pivotal in mediating reflux induced NF-κB activation. Its importance was confirmed further as its increased activation was associated with histological progression in patient samples. We identified further kinases important in acid or bile induced NF-κB signalling in oesophageal cells, which may provide suitable targets for therapeutic intervention. © 2014 UICC.