Aberdeen Group Inc. is a provider of fact-based business intelligence research founded in 1988, trying to "understand the implications and results of process innovation, methodology advancements, technology deployments, and business re-engineering". Wikipedia.
Warris A.,Aberdeen Group
Journal of Infection | Year: 2015
Azole-resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is emerging and is becoming an increasing problem in the management of aspergillosis. Two types of development of resistance have been described; resistance acquired during azole treatment in an individual patient and through environmental exposure to fungicides. The main molecular mechanism of azole resistance in A. fumigatus is explained by mutations in the cyp51A-gene. The environmental route of resistance development is particularly worrying and may affect all patients whether azole exposed or naïve, and whether suffering from acute or chronic aspergillosis. No management guidelines to assist clinicians confronted with azole-resistant aspergillosis are available and pre-clinical and clinical evidence supporting treatment choices is scarce. © 2015 The British Infection Association.
Clement K.D.,Aberdeen Group
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013
Urodynamic tests are used to investigate people who have urinary incontinence or other urinary symptoms in order to make a definitive, objective diagnosis. The aim is to help select the treatment most likely to be successful. The investigations are invasive and time consuming. The objective of this review was to determine if treatment according to a urodynamic-based diagnosis, compared to treatment based on history and examination, led to more effective clinical care of people with urinary incontinence and better clinical outcomes.The intention was to test the following hypotheses in predefined subgroups of people with incontinence:(i) urodynamic investigations improve the clinical outcomes;(ii) urodynamic investigations alter clinical decision making;(iii) one type of urodynamic test is better than another in improving the outcomes of management of incontinence or influencing clinical decisions, or both. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 19 February 2013), and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing clinical outcomes in groups of people who were and were not investigated using urodynamics, or comparing one type of urodynamic test against another were included. Trials were excluded if they did not report clinical outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Eight trials involving around 1100 people were included but data were only available for 1036 women in seven trials, of whom 526 received urodynamics. There was some evidence of risk of bias. The four deaths and 12 dropouts in the control arm of one trial were unexplained.There was significant evidence that the tests did change clinical decision making. Women in the urodynamic arms of three trials were more likely to have their management changed (proportion with change in management compared with the control arm 17% versus 3%, risk ratio (RR) 5.07, 95% CI 1.87 to 13.74), although there was statistical heterogeneity. There was evidence from two trials that women treated after urodynamic investigations were more likely to receive drugs (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.31). On the other hand, in five trials women undergoing treatment following urodynamic investigation were not more likely to undergo surgery (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.12).There was no statistically significant difference however in the number of women with urinary incontinence if they received treatment guided by urodynamics (37%) compared with those whose treatment was based on history and clinical findings alone (36%) (for example, RR for the number with incontinence after the first year 1.02, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.21). It was calculated that the number of women needed to treat was 100 women (95% CI 86 to 114 women) undergoing urodynamics to prevent one extra individual being incontinent at one year.One trial reported adverse effects and no significant difference was found (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.50). While urodynamic tests did change clinical decision making, there was some evidence that this did not result in better outcomes in terms of a difference in urinary incontinence rates after treatment. There was no evidence about their use in men, children, or people with neurological diseases. Larger definitive trials are needed in which people are randomly allocated to management according to urodynamic findings or to management based on history and clinical examination to determine if performance of urodynamics results in higher continence rates after treatment.
Odds F.C.,Aberdeen Group
Future Microbiology | Year: 2010
Candida albicans, a diploid yeast commensal and opportunist pathogen, has evolved unusual mechanisms for maintenance of genetic diversity in the absence of a complete sexual cycle. These include chromosomal polymorphisms, mitotic recombination events, and gains and losses of heterozygosity, superimposed on a fundamentally clonal mode of reproduction. Molecular typing of C. albicans strains shows geographical evolutionary associations but these have become partially blurred, probably as a result of extensive human travel. Individual patients usually carry a single C. albicans strain type, but this may undergo microvariation leading to detection of mixtures of closely related types. Associations have been found between dade 1, the most common multilocus sequence typing cluster of related C. albicans strains, and resistance to flucytosine and terbinafine. There are also dade-related associations with lengths of tandem repeats in some cell-surface proteins, but not with virulence or type of infection. Copyright © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.
MacCallum D.M.,Aberdeen Group
International Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012
Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models. Copyright © 2012 Donna M. MacCallum.
Brown G.D.,Aberdeen Group
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2010
Research into the interaction of fungi with the host has provided significant contributions to mammalian immunology. Here, I briefly review the most notable of these contributions, starting from the time of Metchnikoff, and highlight their impact on our understanding of immunity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.