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Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

In this study, experimental research was carried out to investigate the performance of R22 and its ozone-friendly alternative refrigerants (R404A and R507) in a window air-conditioner. The performance parameters of the system using R22 were considered as benchmarks and those obtained using alternative refrigerants were compared. Experimental results showed that R22 had the lowest pressure ratio and discharge temperature closely followed by R507. The average discharge temperature obtained using R507 and R404A were 4.2% and 15.3% higher than that of R22, respectively. The lowest compressor power and energy consumption were obtained from R507 retrofitted system. Also, the highest refrigeration capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) were obtained using R507 in the system. The average refrigeration capacities of R507 and R404A were 4.7% higher and 8.4% lower than that of R22, respectively, while the average COP of R507 increased by 10.6% and that of R404A reduced by 16.0% with respect to that of R22. Generally, the investigation has revealed that R507 can be used successfully as a retrofitting refrigerant in existing window air-conditioners originally designed to use R22 in the event of HCFC phased out. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gbadebo A.M.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2012

This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i. e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0. 65 ± 0. 21 and 1. 20 ± 0. 14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1. 10 ± 0. 14-1. 45 ± 0. 07 and 0. 15 ± 0. 07-2. 20 ± 1. 41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0. 6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ≤ 0. 05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Njah A.N.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2010

In this paper, recursive and active backstepping nonlinear techniques are employed to design control functions for the respective, control, and synchronization of the new hyperchaotic Liu system. The designed recursive backstepping nonlinear controllers are capable of stabilizing the hyperchaotic Liu system at any position as well as controlling it to track any trajectory that is a smooth function of time. The designed active backstepping nonlinear controllers are effective in globally synchronizing two identical hyperchaotic Liu systems evolving from different initial conditions. The results are all validated by numerical simulations. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Energy | Year: 2010

This paper presents an experimental study of R152a and R32, environment-friendly refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP), to replace R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed and developed to work with R134a was tested, and its performance using R152a and R32 was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator were achieved earlier using refrigerant R152a and R134a than using R32. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R152a is 4.7% higher than that of R134a while average COP of R32 is 8.5% lower than that of R134a. The system consumed less energy when R152a was used. The performance of R152a in the domestic refrigerator was constantly better than those of R134a and R32 throughout all the operating conditions, which shows that R152a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Huan Z.,Tshwane University of Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper presents natural refrigerants as the ideal, environmentally friendly refrigerants and the ultimate solution to the problems of ozone depletion and global warming. HFC refrigerants are currently the leading replacement for CFC and HCFC refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. However, they are equally foreign to nature like CFCs and HCFCs, consequently, strong basis for the need to embrace the use of natural refrigerants as replacement for the halocarbon refrigerants was provided. This paper also analyses potentials of various natural refrigerants and their areas of application in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Natural refrigerants especially hydrocarbons and their mixtures are miscible with both mineral oil used in R12 and poly-ol-ester oils used in R134a systems. Also, with exception of ammonia, they are fully compatible with all materials traditionally used in refrigeration systems. Finally, this paper has revealed that natural refrigerants are the most suitable long time alternatives in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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