Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2011.2.5-02 | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2012
Cassava and yam are important food security crops for approximately 700 million people. Post-harvest losses are significant and come in the three forms: (a) physical; (b) economic through discounting or processing into low value products and (c) from bio-wastes. This project aims to reduce these losses to enhance the role that these crops play in food and income security. Post-harvest physical losses are exceptionally high (ca. 30% in cassava and 60% in yam) and occur throughout the food chain. Losses in economic value are also high (e.g. cassava prices discounted by up to 85% within a couple of days of harvest). Wastes come in various forms e.g. peeling losses can be 15-20%. Waste often has no economic value which can make processing a marginal business proposition. South-south learning is a feature of the project with partners in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Cassava and yam are contrasting in terms of their use and these differences will contribute to developing a comprehensive approach to reducing losses. Technologies and systems will be developed, validated, demonstrated and disseminated that focus benefits on small-holder households whilst offering increased income earning opportunities through SME development and links to large scale industry. These contribute to the comprehensiveness of the approach, and provide diverse learning opportunities and allow examination of losses in a wider food security context. There are 3 impact pathways: 1. reduction of physical losses focussing on fresh yams storage 2. value added processing reducing physical and economic losses in yam and cassava. 3. improved utilisation of wastes (peels, liquid waste, spent brewery waste) producing products for human consumption including snack foods, mushrooms and animal feed. Cross-cutting are issues of food safety, enterprise development and practical demonstration. It is aimed to validate technologies capable of reducing losses by an equivalent of at least 50%
Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture |
Huan Z.,Tshwane University of Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013
This paper presents natural refrigerants as the ideal, environmentally friendly refrigerants and the ultimate solution to the problems of ozone depletion and global warming. HFC refrigerants are currently the leading replacement for CFC and HCFC refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. However, they are equally foreign to nature like CFCs and HCFCs, consequently, strong basis for the need to embrace the use of natural refrigerants as replacement for the halocarbon refrigerants was provided. This paper also analyses potentials of various natural refrigerants and their areas of application in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Natural refrigerants especially hydrocarbons and their mixtures are miscible with both mineral oil used in R12 and poly-ol-ester oils used in R134a systems. Also, with exception of ammonia, they are fully compatible with all materials traditionally used in refrigeration systems. Finally, this paper has revealed that natural refrigerants are the most suitable long time alternatives in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Energy | Year: 2010
This paper presents an experimental study of R152a and R32, environment-friendly refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP), to replace R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed and developed to work with R134a was tested, and its performance using R152a and R32 was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator were achieved earlier using refrigerant R152a and R134a than using R32. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R152a is 4.7% higher than that of R134a while average COP of R32 is 8.5% lower than that of R134a. The system consumed less energy when R152a was used. The performance of R152a in the domestic refrigerator was constantly better than those of R134a and R32 throughout all the operating conditions, which shows that R152a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Njah A.N.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2010
In this paper, recursive and active backstepping nonlinear techniques are employed to design control functions for the respective, control, and synchronization of the new hyperchaotic Liu system. The designed recursive backstepping nonlinear controllers are capable of stabilizing the hyperchaotic Liu system at any position as well as controlling it to track any trajectory that is a smooth function of time. The designed active backstepping nonlinear controllers are effective in globally synchronizing two identical hyperchaotic Liu systems evolving from different initial conditions. The results are all validated by numerical simulations. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Gbadebo A.M.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2012
This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i. e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0. 65 ± 0. 21 and 1. 20 ± 0. 14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1. 10 ± 0. 14-1. 45 ± 0. 07 and 0. 15 ± 0. 07-2. 20 ± 1. 41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0. 6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ≤ 0. 05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Salako F.K.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Geoderma | Year: 2010
In this study, rainfall erosivity factor, R, of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was estimated from daily rainfall amounts of the coastal, humid forest, savanna, semi-arid and arid zones of Nigeria using data from 17 locations, which spanned 10-33 years. Two power law equations were applied to compute the products of kinetic energy, E, and (i) maximum 30-minute intensity, I30 (EI30), and (ii) maximum 15-minute intensity, I15 (EI15). The indices were used to develop monthly and annual isoerodent maps. Mean monthly EI30 ranged from 600 to 3200 MJ mm ha- 1 h- 1 whereas the annual values ranged from 3000 to 27,000 MJ mm ha- 1 h- 1 from the arid to the coastal zones. The EI15 index was 1.7 times greater than the EI30. Trends of rainfall erosivity in the derived, southern Guinea and northern Guinea savannas or wet savannas were erratic and less predictable from the trends of rainfall amount, unlike in the coastal, humid forest, semi-arid and arid zones. Extrapolation of data for soil conservation planning did not appear feasible in the wet savannas. Monthly values of erosivity presented are recommended for conservation plans during the cropping seasons in the various agroecological zones. The EI15 index is recommended for both monthly (seasonal) and annual soil loss computations because short-term intensities reveal rainfall erosivity better in the tropics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Njah A.N.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
JVC/Journal of Vibration and Control | Year: 2011
In this paper active controllers based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the Routh-Hurwitz criteria, are designed to completely synchronize two parametrically and externally excited φ6 Van der Pol oscillators, φ6 Duffing oscillators, and a fv6 Van der Pol oscillator with a φ6 Duffing oscillator in the triple-well configuration of the φ6 potential. The coefficient matrix of the error dynamics between each pair of synchronized systems is chosen such that the number of active control functions reduces from two to one, thereby significantly reducing controller complexity in the design. The designed controllers enable the state variables of the response system to synchronize with those of the master system in both the identical and nonidentical cases. The results are validated using numerical simulations. Application to secure communications is computationally demonstrated. © 2010 The Author(s).
Edema M.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011
This study developed a procedure for the production of sour bread from 100% maize meal. The modified method combined sponge and dough methods in two mixing stages to form a batter rather than stiff dough. The baking quality of the maize meal was improved by using starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria selected from indigenous micro-flora of the maize meal. Lactobacillus plantarum lowered the pH of fermenting maize meal (3.1) more than other starters; Lactobacillus brevis produced the highest amount of diacetyl (180.8 mg) while Leuconostoc mesenteroides recorded the highest final viscosity value of 144.0 RVU. The sour maize bread fermented with a mixed culture of the three selected cultures had the best physical (weight 122 g, height 3.7 cm, crumb dry matter 69%) and sensory properties (taste and overall acceptability 4.8 on a five-point hedonic scale), which were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from bread samples produced with other test starters). The mixed cultures are recommended for sour maize bread production for good rheological properties, proper acidification, and acceptable flavor development. © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Olajuwon B.I.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011
The convection heat and mass transfer in a hydromagnetic flow of a second grade fluid past a semi-infinite stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation and thermal diffusion are considered. The governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow problem are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations by method of similarity transformation. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta shooting method. The results are presented as velocity, temperature and concentration fields for different values of parameters entering into the problem. The skin friction, rate of heat transfer and mass transfer are presented numerically in tabular form. In addition, the results obtained showed that these parameters have significant influence on the flow, heat and mass transfer. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Bolaji B.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011
In this study, experimental research was carried out to investigate the performance of R22 and its ozone-friendly alternative refrigerants (R404A and R507) in a window air-conditioner. The performance parameters of the system using R22 were considered as benchmarks and those obtained using alternative refrigerants were compared. Experimental results showed that R22 had the lowest pressure ratio and discharge temperature closely followed by R507. The average discharge temperature obtained using R507 and R404A were 4.2% and 15.3% higher than that of R22, respectively. The lowest compressor power and energy consumption were obtained from R507 retrofitted system. Also, the highest refrigeration capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) were obtained using R507 in the system. The average refrigeration capacities of R507 and R404A were 4.7% higher and 8.4% lower than that of R22, respectively, while the average COP of R507 increased by 10.6% and that of R404A reduced by 16.0% with respect to that of R22. Generally, the investigation has revealed that R507 can be used successfully as a retrofitting refrigerant in existing window air-conditioners originally designed to use R22 in the event of HCFC phased out. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.