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Sanwalka N.J.,University of Pune | Khadilkar A.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Mughal M.Z.,Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital | Sayyad M.G.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College | And 4 more authors.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

Khadilkar A.V.,Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute | Sayyad M.G.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College | Sanwalka N.J.,University of Pune | Bhandari D.R.,University of Pune | And 3 more authors.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Vitamin D deficiency is common among children and adolescents in India, in spite of abundant sunshine. We conducted a pilot; double blind randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral content in underprivileged adolescent girls, in Pune, India. Fifty post-menarcheal girls aged 14 to 15 years were randomised to receive 300,000 IU (7.5 mg) of ergocalciferol or placebo orally, 4 times/year. All participants received 250 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) daily. Outcome measures included change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, size adjusted bone area and bone mineral content at total body and lumbar spine. Post supplementation, the median serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 75.2 (64.2-85.5) nmol/L in the intervention group and 28.1 (16.7-34.0) nmol/L in the placebo group. Increment in bone outcome measures was not different in the two groups. However, there was a positive effect of intervention in the size adjusted total body bone area (p<0.05), total body bone mineral content (p<0.05) and lumbar spine bone mineral content (p<0.05), and positive trend in lumbar spine bone area (p=0.07) in girls who were within 2 years of menarche. We conclude that vitamin D supplementation did not have a beneficial effect on skeletal mineralization in girls who were more than 2 years post menarcheal. However, there was a significant positive effect of the intervention on size adjusted total body and lumbar spine bone mineral content and a positive trend in lumbar spine bone area, in girls who were ≤ 2 years of menarche.

Aziz A.S.,Sir J J Group Of Hospitals | Kalekar M.G.,Sir J J Group Of Hospitals | Suryakar A.N.,Maharashtra University of Health Sciences | Benjamin T.,Sir J J Group Of Hospitals | Sayyad M.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The present study aims to assess and compare the biochemical oxidative stress markers in male smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. One hundred thirty-four male chronic periodontitis patients and 64 apparently healthy male volunteers were recruited for the study. The periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, plaque index, papillary bleeding index and clinical attachment loss using UNC-15 probe. The biochemical markers estimated were total antioxidant capacity, RBC-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, malondialdehyde and C-reactive protein. The obtained results indicate higher oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis. Smokers with chronic periodontitis show significantly higher periodontal clinical parameters and relatively higher systemic oxidative stress. Vitamin C estimation may be an important biochemical parameter in conjunction with clinical parameters for diagnosis of chronic periodontitis in smokers. © 2013 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

Li Y.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Kong D.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Wang Z.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Ahmad A.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2011

The development of prostate cancer and its progression to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after antiandrogen ablation therapy are driven by persistent biological activity of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Moreover, studies have shown that more than 50% of human prostate cancers overexpress ERG (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene) due to AR-regulated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. However, the reported roles of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in cancer progression are not clear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction in the AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling network for studying the aggressive behavior of prostate cancer cells and further assessed the effects of BR-DIM and CDF [natural agents-derived synthetic formulation and analogue of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) and curcumin, respectively, with improved bioavailability] on the regulation of AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling. We found that activation of AR resulted in the induction of ERG expression through TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. Moreover, we found that ERG overexpression and nuclear translocation activated the activity of Wnt signaling. Furthermore, forced overexpression of ERG promoted invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells. More important, we found that BR-DIM and CDF inhibited the signal transduction in the AR/TMPRSS2- ERG/Wnt signaling network, leading to the inactivation of Wnt signaling consistent with inhibition of prostate cancer cell invasion. In addition, BR-DIM and CDF inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that because BR-DIM and CDF downregulate multiple signaling pathways including AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling, these agents could be useful for designing novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. ©2011 AACR.

Baig U.I.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College | Shaikh S.I.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College | Rampurwala T.Q.,Abeda Inamdar Senior College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Aging in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. The asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive response is debated. Minimum inhibitory concentration results were expected to show that the low cultures adapted to oligotrophic nutrient medium would be highly sensitive to the different antibiotic concentrations since there is a cost involved in carrying the antibiotic genes, but instead the results showed that the cell cultures grown in low nutrient media were resistant to the antibiotic and had a higher growth rate which indicated that there was no cost involved. The, results suggest that cellular aging due to asymmetric division may shows plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

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