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Columbia, MD, United States

Wolf J.R.,ABC Laboratories
Liquid Crystals Reviews | Year: 2014

Hydrogen bonding has been extensively used to create the mesogenic core of calamitic liquid crystals. While the field of polymeric hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals has been extensively studied, most of the research has been devoted to side chain hydrogen-bonded polymeric liquid crystals with far less effort devoted to the study of main chain hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals despite the variety of liquid crystalline (LC) phases they possess. In this review, centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric main chain hydrogen-bonded polymers are discussed with an emphasis on the structure/property relationships and the variety of LC phases observed in the resulting polymers. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Whiting S.A.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Whiting S.A.,ABC Laboratories | Strain K.E.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Campbell L.A.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

A mixture of insecticides used in corn production was monitored over a three-year period in a field study to determine how long each persists in the environment, where each insecticide travels within the corn field, and the efficacy of using soil-applied insecticides with genetically modified corn. The genetically modified corn contained the insecticidal Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 proteins (Bt corn) and the Cry1Ab protein was found to persist only during the corn growing season in soil, runoff water, and runoff sediment with highest concentrations measured during pollination. Very low concentrations of Cry1Ab proteins were measured in soil collected in the non-Bt corn field, and no Cry1Ab proteins were detected in shallow groundwater or soil pore water. Clothianidin, a neonicotinoid insecticide used as a seed coating, was detected in all matrices and remained persistent throughout the year in soil pore water. Tefluthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide applied at planting to control corn rootworm larvae (Diabrotica spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations, was consistently detected in soil, runoff water, and runoff sediment during the corn growing season, but was not detected in groundwater or soil pore water. Tefluthrin did not have an effect on root damage from corn rootworm larvae feeding to Bt corn, but did prevent damage to non-Bt corn. A slight reduction in grain yield was observed in the non-Bt, no tefluthrin treatment when compared to all other treatments, but no significant difference in grain yield was observed among Bt corn treatments regardless of soil insecticide application. In the current study, the use of tefluthrin on Bt corn did not significantly affect crop damage or yield, and tefluthrin may travel off-site in runoff water and sediment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang Y.,Pfizer | Garnes K.T.,ABC Laboratories | Brown D.,Donna Brown Consulting
Journal of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

PF-00217830 is a D 2-partial agonist developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. The dual 14C/ 14C and 14C/ 3H-labelled PF-00217830 were required for animal and human absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) studies. This report describes the development of the syntheses of dual 14C/ 14C- and dual 14C/ 3H-labelled PF-00217830. [ 14C]PF-00217830-L labelled at the naphthalene ring was prepared in three steps starting with [ 14C]naphthalene, while [ 3H]PF-00217830-R was synthesised by Pd-catalysed tritium de-bromination of brominated PF-00217830 in a single radiosynthetic step. The dual [ 14C/ 3H]PF-00217830 was made by mixing 1:10 radioactivity ratio of [ 14C]PF-00217830-L and [ 3H]PF- 00217830-R. The chemistry for [ 14C]PF-00217830-R labelled at the pyridine ring was also described.


Dyer D.J.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wolf J.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wolf J.R.,ABC Laboratories
Macromolecular Research | Year: 2014

The syntheses and characterization of three noncentrosymmetric main chain hydrogen bonded macromolecules which incorporate diethyl-[4-(pyridin-4-ylazo)- phenyl]-amine hydrogen bond acceptor units are reported. These macromolecules participate in strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding as demonstrated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR. The phase transitions of these macromolecules depend on the identity of the hydrogen bond donor. Mixtures of these azo-stilbazole macromolecules with noncentrosymmetric hydrogen bonded liquid crystalline macromolecules possess nematic liquid crystalline phases when the concentration of the azo-stilbazole macromolecule is ≤ 50 mol%. © 2014 The Polymer Society of Korea and Springer Sciene+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dyer D.J.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wolf J.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wolf J.R.,ABC Laboratories
Macromolecular Research | Year: 2014

The syntheses and characterization of a series of noncentrosymmetric main chain hydrogen bonded macromolecules are described, which contain 4-pyridone hydrogen bond acceptor units. These macromolecules possess strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding as demonstrated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR. The phase transitions of the macromolecules depend on the identities of the hydrogen bond donor, lateral substituent, and linker chain. © 2014 The Polymer Society of Korea and Springer Sciene+Business Media Dordrecht.

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