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Tempski P.,University of Sao Paulo | Santos I.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Mayer F.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Enns S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Context: Resilience is a capacity to face and overcome adversities, with personal transformation and growth. In medical education, it is critical to understand the determinants of a positive, developmental reaction in the face of stressful, emotionally demanding situations. We studied the association among resilience, quality of life (QoL) and educational environment perceptions in medical students. Methods: We evaluated data from a random sample of 1,350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale (RS-14), the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: Full multiple linear regression models were adjusted for sex, age, year of medical course, presence of a BDI score ≥ 14 and STAI state or anxiety scores ≥ 50. Compared to those with very high resilience levels, individuals with very low resilience had worse QoL, measured by overall (β=-0.89; 95% confidence interval =-1.21 to -0.56) and medical-school related (β=-0.85; 95%CI=-1.25 to -0.45) QoL scores, environment (β=-6.48; 95%CI=-10.01 to -2.95), psychological (β=-22.89; 95%CI=-25.70 to -20.07), social relationships (β=-14.28; 95%CI=-19.07 to -9.49), and physical health (β=-10.74; 95%CI=-14.07 to -7.42) WHOQOL-BREF domain scores. They also had a worse educational environment perception, measured by global DREEM score (β=-31.42; 95%CI=-37.86 to -24.98), learning (β=-7.32; 95% CI=-9.23 to -5.41), teachers (β=-5.37; 95%CI=-7.16 to -3.58), academic self-perception (β=-7.33; 95%CI=-8.53 to -6.12), atmosphere (β=-8.29; 95%CI=-10.13 to -6.44) and social self-perception (β=-3.12; 95%CI=-4.11 to -2.12) DREEM domain scores. We also observed a dose-response pattern across resilience level groups for most measurements. Conclusions: Medical students with higher resilience levels had a better quality of life and a better perception of educational environment. Developing resilience may become an important strategy to minimize emotional distress and enhance medical training. © 2015 Tempski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Palma C.G.L.,ABC Foundation Medical School | Lera A.T.,Foundation Medicine | Lerner T.,ABC Foundation Medical School | De Oliveira M.M.,ABC Foundation Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2016

Purpose: Anorexia is prevalent in cancer patients with advanced disease. In this pilot phase II, open label, nonrandomized trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of guarana (Paullinia cupana) in patients with cancer and weight loss. Methods: We included advanced cancer patients with decreased appetite and weight loss of more than 5% from their baseline. All of the patients received 50 mg of the crude dry extract of guarana twice a day for 4 weeks. The trial was designed in two phases (Simon model). We considered a positive response in the first phase to be at least 5% weight gain or a three-point improvement in the appetite scale in at least three of the first 18 evaluable patients. Results: Of the 34 eligible patients, 30 were included and 18 completed the protocol. Only one patient abandoned the protocol due to toxicity (grade II arthralgia). No grade 3 or 4 toxicities and no significant differences in nausea, weight loss, or quality of life (FACT-G) occurred. Only two of the 18 patients who completed the study had weight gain above 5% from their baseline, whereas six patients had at least a 3-point improvement in the visual appetite scale. The M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) was used to evaluate several symptoms, and we observed a significant decrease in the lack of appetite (p = 0.02) and in somnolence (p = 0.0142). Conclusion: We concluded that the weight stabilization and increased appetite that we observed in this study justify further studies of guarana in this patient population. © 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Palma C.G.L.,ABC Foundation Medical School | Lera A.T.,Foundation Medicine | Lerner T.,3ABC Foundation Medical School | de Oliveira M.M.,3ABC Foundation Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2015

Purpose: Anorexia is prevalent in cancer patients with advanced disease. In this pilot phase II, open label, nonrandomized trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of guarana (Paullinia cupana) in patients with cancer and weight loss. Methods: We included advanced cancer patients with decreased appetite and weight loss of more than 5% from their baseline. All of the patients received 50 mg of the crude dry extract of guarana twice a day for 4 weeks. The trial was designed in two phases (Simon model). We considered a positive response in the first phase to be at least 5% weight gain or a three-point improvement in the appetite scale in at least three of the first 18 evaluable patients. Results: Of the 34 eligible patients, 30 were included and 18 completed the protocol. Only one patient abandoned the protocol due to toxicity (grade II arthralgia). No grade 3 or 4 toxicities and no significant differences in nausea, weight loss, or quality of life (FACT-G) occurred. Only two of the 18 patients who completed the study had weight gain above 5% from their baseline, whereas six patients had at least a 3-point improvement in the visual appetite scale. The M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) was used to evaluate several symptoms, and we observed a significant decrease in the lack of appetite (p = 0.02) and in somnolence (p = 0.0142). Conclusion: We concluded that the weight stabilization and increased appetite that we observed in this study justify further studies of guarana in this patient population. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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