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Worcester, MA, United States

Feinberg H.,Stanford University | Saldanha J.W.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Diep L.,Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Goel A.,Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy

Introduction. Immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β peptide is under active clinical investigation for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the hypotheses being investigated for impact on clinical outcome are the preferred epitope or conformation of amyloid-β to target for treatment, and the mechanism of action underlying immunotherapy. Bapineuzumab (humanized 3D6), a neo-epitope specific antibody recognizing amyloid-β1-5 with strong preference for an exposed Asp residue at the N-terminus of the peptide, has undergone advanced clinical testing for treatment of AD. Methods. To gain further insight into the epitope conformation, we interrogated structural details of amino-terminal epitopes in amyloid-β using x-ray crystallography of 3D6Fab:amyloid-β complexes. Humanization of 3D6 was carried out using standard procedures integrating recombinant methods, sequence informatics, and homology modeling predictions to identify important mouse framework residues for retention in the finished humanized product. Results: Here we report the crystal structure of a recombinant Fab fragment of 3D6 in complex with amyloid-β1-7 solved at 2.0 Å resolution. The N-terminus of amyloid-β is bound to 3D6 as a 310 helix. The amino-terminal Asp residue is buried deepest in the antibody binding pocket, with the Cβ atom of residue 6 visible at the entrance to the binding pocket near the surface of the antibody. We further evaluate homology model based predictions used to guide humanization of 3D6 to bapineuzumab, with actual structure of the Fab. The structure of the Fab:amyloid-β complex validates design of the humanized antibody, and confirms the amyloid-β epitope recognized by 3D6 as previously mapped by ELISA. Conclusions: The conformation of amyloid-β antigen recognized by 3D6 is novel and distinct from other antibodies recognizing N-terminal epitopes. Our result provides the first report demonstrating structural conservation of antigen contact residues, and conformation of antigen recognized, between the parent murine antibody and its humanized version. © 2014 Feinberg et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sproule T.J.,The Jackson Laboratory | Bubier J.A.,The Jackson Laboratory | Grandi F.C.,The Jackson Laboratory | Grandi F.C.,Washington State University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) encompasses a spectrum of mechanobullous disorders caused by rare mutations that result in structural weakening of the skin and mucous membranes. While gene mutated and types of mutations present are broadly predictive of the range of disease to be expected, a remarkable amount of phenotypic variability remains unaccounted for in all but the most deleterious cases. This unexplained variance raises the possibility of genetic modifier effects. We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model that recapitulates a non-Herlitz form of junctional EB (JEB) owing to the hypomorphic jeb allele of laminin gamma 2 (Lamc2). By varying normally asymptomatic background genetics, we document the potent impact of genetic modifiers on the strength of dermal-epidermal adhesion and on the clinical severity of JEB in the context of the Lamc2jeb mutation. Through an unbiased genetic approach involving a combination of QTL mapping and positional cloning, we demonstrate that Col17a1 is a strong genetic modifier of the non-Herlitz JEB that develops in Lamc2jeb mice. This modifier is defined by variations in 1-3 neighboring amino acids in the non-collagenous 4 domain of the collagen XVII protein. These allelic variants alter the strength of dermal-epidermal adhesion in the context of the Lamc2jeb mutation and, consequentially, broadly impact the clinical severity of JEB. Overall the results provide an explanation for how normally innocuous allelic variants can act epistatically with a disease causing mutation to impact the severity of a rare, heritable mechanobullous disorder. © 2014 Sproule et al. Source

Cusack K.P.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Koolman H.F.,AbbVie | Lange U.E.W.,AbbVie Deutschland GmbH and Co. KG | Peltier H.M.,AbbVie | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters

Multiple technologies have emerged for structural diversification and efficient production of metabolites of drug molecules. These include expanded use of enzymatic and bioorganic transformations that mimic biological systems, biomimetic catalysis and electrochemical techniques. As this field continues to mature the breadth of transformations is growing beyond simple oxidative processes due in part to parallel development of more efficient catalytic methods for functionalization of unactivated scaffolds. These technologies allow for efficient structural diversification of both aromatic and aliphatic substrates in many cases via single step reactions without the use of protecting groups. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chumsae C.,Protein Analytics | Chumsae C.,Northeastern University | Gifford K.,Protein Analytics | Lian W.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry

Heterogeneity is common among protein therapeutics. For example, the so-called acidic species (charge variants) are typically observed when recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are analyzed by weak-cation exchange chromatography (WCX). Several protein post-translational modifications have been established as contributors but still cannot completely account for all heterogeneity. As reported herein, an unexpected modification by methylglyoxal (MGO) was identified, for the first time, in a recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Modifications of arginine residues by methylglyoxal lead to two adducts (dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone) with increases of molecular weights of 72 and 54 Da, respectively. In addition, the modification by methylglyoxal causes the antibody to elute earlier in the weak cation exchange chromatogram. Consequently, the extent to which an antibody was modified at multiple sites corresponds to the degree of shift in elution time. Furthermore, cell culture parameters also affected the extent of modifications by methylglyoxal, a highly reactive metabolite that can be generated from glucose or lipids or other metabolic pathways. Our findings again highlight the impact that cell culture conditions can have on the product quality of recombinant protein pharmaceuticals. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Correia I.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Sung J.,Nanoimaging Services, Inc. | Burton R.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Jakob C.G.,Abbott Laboratories | And 3 more authors.

A dual-specific, tetravalent immunoglobulin G-like molecule, termed dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVDIg ™), is engineered to block two targets. Flexibility modulates Fc receptor and complement binding, but could result in undesirable cross-linking of surface antigens and downstream signaling. Understanding the flexibility of parental mAbs is important for designing and retaining functionality of DVD-Ig™ molecules. The architecture and dynamics of a DVDIg ™ molecule and its parental mAbs was examined using single particle electron microscopy. Hinge angles measured for the DVD-Ig™ molecule were similar to the inner antigen parental mAb. The outer binding domain of the DVD-Ig ™ molecule was highly mobile and three-dimensional (3D) analysis showed binding of inner antigen caused the outer domain to fold out of the plane with a major morphological change. Docking high-resolution X-ray structures into the 3D electron microscopy map supports the extraordinary domain flexibility observed in the DVD-Ig™ molecule allowing antigen binding with minimal steric hindrance. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source

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