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Bandyopadhyay A.A.,University of Minnesota | Khetan A.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Malmberg L.-H.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Zhou W.,WuXi AppTec | Hu W.-S.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2017

The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics. © 2017 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology


Cusack K.P.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Wang Y.,AbbVie | Hoemann M.Z.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Marjanovic J.,AbbVie | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

The kinetics of drug binding and drug residence time are recognized to be important in the clinical effectiveness of drug candidates. In most cases a long residence time of the drug-target complex results in an extended duration of pharmacodynamic activity, even when systemic concentrations of drug have been notably reduced through elimination routes. Hence, if selective for target, long residence times can increase the duration of drug efficacy in vivo and can significantly diminish the potential for off-target-mediated toxicities. Furthermore, a compound with a slower dissociation rate may allow a reduced dosing schedule relative to a compound with a rapid dissociation rate. Factors contributing to long residence time that could be useful to medicinal chemists in the prospective design of compounds with long residence times will be discussed in this perspective. Particular emphasis will be on case studies highlighting how kinetics can be measured, modulated based on supporting structure kinetic relationships and whether these effects are translatable into man. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cusack K.P.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Koolman H.F.,AbbVie | Lange U.E.W.,AbbVie Deutschland GmbH and Co. KG | Peltier H.M.,AbbVie | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Multiple technologies have emerged for structural diversification and efficient production of metabolites of drug molecules. These include expanded use of enzymatic and bioorganic transformations that mimic biological systems, biomimetic catalysis and electrochemical techniques. As this field continues to mature the breadth of transformations is growing beyond simple oxidative processes due in part to parallel development of more efficient catalytic methods for functionalization of unactivated scaffolds. These technologies allow for efficient structural diversification of both aromatic and aliphatic substrates in many cases via single step reactions without the use of protecting groups. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Correia I.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Sung J.,Nanoimaging Services, Inc. | Burton R.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Jakob C.G.,Abbott Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
mAbs | Year: 2013

A dual-specific, tetravalent immunoglobulin G-like molecule, termed dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVDIg ™), is engineered to block two targets. Flexibility modulates Fc receptor and complement binding, but could result in undesirable cross-linking of surface antigens and downstream signaling. Understanding the flexibility of parental mAbs is important for designing and retaining functionality of DVD-Ig™ molecules. The architecture and dynamics of a DVDIg ™ molecule and its parental mAbs was examined using single particle electron microscopy. Hinge angles measured for the DVD-Ig™ molecule were similar to the inner antigen parental mAb. The outer binding domain of the DVD-Ig ™ molecule was highly mobile and three-dimensional (3D) analysis showed binding of inner antigen caused the outer domain to fold out of the plane with a major morphological change. Docking high-resolution X-ray structures into the 3D electron microscopy map supports the extraordinary domain flexibility observed in the DVD-Ig™ molecule allowing antigen binding with minimal steric hindrance. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Jakob C.G.,Abbvie Inc. | Edalji R.,Abbvie Inc. | Judge R.A.,Abbvie Inc. | DiGiammarino E.,Abbvie Inc. | And 3 more authors.
mAbs | Year: 2013

Several bispecific antibody-based formats have been developed over the past 25 years in an effort to produce a new generation of immunotherapeutics that target two or more disease mechanisms simultaneously. One such format, the dual-variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™), combines the target binding domains of two monoclonal antibodies via flexible naturally occurring linkers, which yields a tetravalent IgG - like molecule. We report the structure of an interleukin (IL)12-IL18 DVD-Ig™ Fab (DFab) fragment with IL18 bound to the inner variable domain (VD) that reveals the remarkable flexibility of the DVD-Ig™ molecule and how the DVD-Ig™ format can function to bind four antigens simultaneously. An understanding of how the inner variable domain retains function is of critical importance for designing DVD-Ig™ molecules, and for better understanding of the flexibility of immunoglobulin variable domains and linkers, which may aid in the design of improved bi- and multi-specific biologics in general. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Chumsae C.,Protein Analytics | Chumsae C.,Northeastern University | Gifford K.,Protein Analytics | Lian W.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Heterogeneity is common among protein therapeutics. For example, the so-called acidic species (charge variants) are typically observed when recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are analyzed by weak-cation exchange chromatography (WCX). Several protein post-translational modifications have been established as contributors but still cannot completely account for all heterogeneity. As reported herein, an unexpected modification by methylglyoxal (MGO) was identified, for the first time, in a recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Modifications of arginine residues by methylglyoxal lead to two adducts (dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone) with increases of molecular weights of 72 and 54 Da, respectively. In addition, the modification by methylglyoxal causes the antibody to elute earlier in the weak cation exchange chromatogram. Consequently, the extent to which an antibody was modified at multiple sites corresponds to the degree of shift in elution time. Furthermore, cell culture parameters also affected the extent of modifications by methylglyoxal, a highly reactive metabolite that can be generated from glucose or lipids or other metabolic pathways. Our findings again highlight the impact that cell culture conditions can have on the product quality of recombinant protein pharmaceuticals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Freitag A.J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Shomali M.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Michalakis S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Biel M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 6 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: The potential contribution of protein aggregates to the unwanted immunogenicity of protein pharmaceuticals is a major concern. In the present study a murine monoclonal antibody was utilized to study the immunogenicity of different types of aggregates in mice. Samples containing defined types of aggregates were prepared by processes such as stirring, agitation, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and exposure to elevated temperatures. Methods: Aggregates were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography, light obscuration, turbidimetry, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and UV spectroscopy. Samples were separated into fractions based on aggregate size by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation or by centrifugation. Samples containing different types and sizes of aggregates were subsequently administered to C57BL/6 J and BALB/c mice, and serum was analyzed for the presence of anti-IgG1, anti-IgG2a, anti-IgG2b and anti-IgG3 antibodies. In addition, the pharmacokinetic profile of the murine antibody was investigated. Results: In this study, samples containing high numbers of different types of aggregates were administered in order to challenge the in vivo system. The magnitude of immune response depends on the nature of the aggregates. The most immunogenic aggregates were of relatively large and insoluble nature, with perturbed, non-native structures. Conclusion: This study shows that not all protein drug aggregates are equally immunogenic. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.


Feinberg H.,Stanford University | Saldanha J.W.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Diep L.,Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Goel A.,Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction. Immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β peptide is under active clinical investigation for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the hypotheses being investigated for impact on clinical outcome are the preferred epitope or conformation of amyloid-β to target for treatment, and the mechanism of action underlying immunotherapy. Bapineuzumab (humanized 3D6), a neo-epitope specific antibody recognizing amyloid-β1-5 with strong preference for an exposed Asp residue at the N-terminus of the peptide, has undergone advanced clinical testing for treatment of AD. Methods. To gain further insight into the epitope conformation, we interrogated structural details of amino-terminal epitopes in amyloid-β using x-ray crystallography of 3D6Fab:amyloid-β complexes. Humanization of 3D6 was carried out using standard procedures integrating recombinant methods, sequence informatics, and homology modeling predictions to identify important mouse framework residues for retention in the finished humanized product. Results: Here we report the crystal structure of a recombinant Fab fragment of 3D6 in complex with amyloid-β1-7 solved at 2.0 Å resolution. The N-terminus of amyloid-β is bound to 3D6 as a 310 helix. The amino-terminal Asp residue is buried deepest in the antibody binding pocket, with the Cβ atom of residue 6 visible at the entrance to the binding pocket near the surface of the antibody. We further evaluate homology model based predictions used to guide humanization of 3D6 to bapineuzumab, with actual structure of the Fab. The structure of the Fab:amyloid-β complex validates design of the humanized antibody, and confirms the amyloid-β epitope recognized by 3D6 as previously mapped by ELISA. Conclusions: The conformation of amyloid-β antigen recognized by 3D6 is novel and distinct from other antibodies recognizing N-terminal epitopes. Our result provides the first report demonstrating structural conservation of antigen contact residues, and conformation of antigen recognized, between the parent murine antibody and its humanized version. © 2014 Feinberg et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tebbey P.W.,AbbVie | Varga A.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Naill M.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Clewell J.,AbbVie | Venema J.,AbbVie
mAbs | Year: 2015

Humira® (adalimumab) is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) glycoprotein consisting of 1330 amino acids that is specific for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The biological activity and clinical profile of mAb therapeutics, including adalimumab, is influenced by their protein structure and glycosylation patterns, which can be affected by the expression system, cell culture conditions and purification process methodology. While clinical outcome cannot yet be attributed to many of the individual structural features that constitute a mAb, it is evident that detailed structural attribute analysis is necessary if structural contributions to function are to be comprehensively defined. Adalimumab product quality data generated from over a decade of manufacturing across multiple production sites and through a series of manufacturing scale changes are presented here. These data reveal a consistent and tightly controlled profile for the product. © AbbVie Inc.


Ouellette D.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Chumsae C.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Clabbers A.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Radziejewski C.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center | Correia I.,AbbVie Bioresearch Center
mAbs | Year: 2013

Deamidation of asparagine residues, a post-translational modification observed in proteins, is a common degradation pathway in monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The kinetics of deamidation is influenced by primary sequence as well as secondary and tertiary folding. Analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is used to evaluate hydrophobicity of candidate mAbs and uncover post-translational modifications. Using HIC, we discovered atypical heterogeneity in a highly hydrophobic molecule (mAb-1). Characterization of the different HIC fractions using LC/MS/MS revealed a stable succinimide intermediate species localized to an asparagine-glycine motif in the heavy chain binding region. The succinimide intermediate was stable in vitro at pH 7 and below and increased on storage at 25°C and 40°C. Biacore evaluation showed a decrease in binding affinity of the succinimide intermediate compared with the native asparagine molecule. In vivo studies of mAb-1 recovered from a pharmacokinetic study in cynomolgus monkeys revealed an unstable succinimide species and rapid conversion to aspartic/iso-aspartic acid. Mutation from asparagine to aspartic acid led to little loss in affinity. This study illustrates the importance of evaluating modifications of therapeutic mAbs both in vitro and in serum, the intended environment of the molecule. Potential mechanisms that stabilize the succinimide intermediate in vitro are discussed. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

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