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Lewis P.O.,University of Connecticut | Xie W.,AbbVie | Chen M.-H.,University of Connecticut | Fan Y.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Kuo L.,University of Connecticut
Systematic Biology | Year: 2014

We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand-Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] © The Author(s) 2013.

ABT-384 is a potent, selective inhibitor of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD-1). One milligram of ABT-384 daily fully inhibited hepatic HSD-1. Establishing the dose that fully inhibits central nervous system (CNS) HSD-1 would enable definitive clinical studies in potential CNS indications. [9,11,12,12-(2)H4] cortisol (D4 cortisol), a stable labeled tracer, was used to characterize HSD-1 inhibition by ABT-384. D4 cortisol and its products were measured in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy male volunteers during D4 cortisol infusions, for up to 40 h after five daily doses of 1-50 mg ABT-384. Similar procedures were conducted in control subjects who received no ABT-384. Peripheral HSD-1 inhibition was calculated from plasma levels of D4 cortisol and its products. CNS HSD-1 inhibition was characterized from plasma and CSF levels of D4 cortisol and its products. ABT-384 regimens ≥2 mg daily maintained peripheral HSD-1 inhibition ≥88%. ABT-384 1 mg daily maintained peripheral HSD-1 inhibition ≥81%. No CNS formation of D3 cortisol (the mass-labeled product of HSD-1) was detected following ABT-384 ≥2 mg daily, indicating full CNS HSD-1 inhibition by these regimens. Partial CNS HSD-1 inhibition was associated with 1 mg ABT-384 daily. CNS HSD-1 inhibition was characterized by strong hysteresis and increased with maximum post-dose plasma concentration of ABT-384 and its active metabolites. ABT-384 has a wide potential therapeutic window for potential indications including Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder. Stable labeled substrates may be viable tools for measuring CNS effect during new drug development for other enzyme targets.

Gintant G.,AbbVie
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2015

In vitro screening for cardiovascular safety liabilities of novel drug candidates presents a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Such approaches rely on detecting pharmacologic effects on key components of complex integrated system early in drug discovery to define potential safety liabilities. Key to such studies are the concepts of hazard identification vs. risk assessment, drug specificity vs. selectivity, and an appreciation of the challenges faced when attempting to translate in vitro findings to preclinical in vivo as well as clinical effects. This chapter defines some key aspects of early safety pharmacology screening for cardiovascular liabilities, citing studies of two key depolarizing cardiac currents (fast sodium current and L-type calcium current) as examples linked to effects on cardiac conduction and repolarization. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Disclosed herein are methods of purifying proteins using ultrafiltration and diafiltration processes.

The instant invention relates to modulated lysine variant species compositions comprising a protein, e.g., an antibody, or antigen-binding portion thereof, and methods, e.g., cell culture and/or protein purification methods, for producing such modulated lysine variant species compositions. Methods for using such compositions to treat a disorder, e.g., a disorder in which TNF is detrimental, are also provided.

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