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Vagnoni V.,University of Bologna | Brunocilla E.,University of Bologna | Bianchi L.,University of Bologna | Porreca A.,Abano Policlinic Hospital Abano Terme | And 11 more authors.
Archivos Espanoles de Urologia | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated state of the art about the role of positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) with 11C-Choline and 18F-fluorocholine in the localized and locally advanced Prostate Cancer (PCa) in the staging and restaging setting. METHODS: We performed a non-systematic review of the literature based on a free-text search in the National Library of Medicine Database (MEDLINE) to select English-language published papers evaluating PET and Arch. Esp. Urol. 2015; 68 (3): 354-370 PET/CT imaging with radiolabelled choline in initial diagnosis and in post-treatment phase in PCa patients. RESULTS: PET and PET/CT with 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine have been largely investigated as non-invasive diagnostic tools in PCa. Actually, the relatively high rate of false negative findings due to the small dimension of neoplastic lesions and the available spatial resolution of PET tracers limits the routine use of choline PET and PET/CT in staging setting; moreover, it cannot reliably replace the lymph node (LN) dissection for detecting LN involvement. On restaging setting, Choline PET/CT showed a higher accuracy than conventional imaging modalities, especially in the detection of LN and systemic metastases, while it is less accurate than magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of local relapse. CONCLUSION: In the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) era with a large number of localized disease, the diagnostic performance of choline PET and PET/CT lack of reliability in initial diagnosis of PCa. The major clinical role of choline PET/CT is the re-staging of patients with a biochemical relapse after radical treatment; the promising performance of choline PET/CT scan in patients with low levels of PSA could also lead the clinicians for to perform PET-guided adjuvant curative therapies or palliative treatments in patients already treated radically for PCa.

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