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Eboibi B.E.,University of Adelaide | Eboibi B.E.,Delta State University | Lewis D.M.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,Muradel Pty Ltd Australia | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2015

The combination of anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction can provide enhanced energy production from animal wastes such as cow manure. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of anaerobic digestate is a novel approach for waste management to recover residual carbon Anaerobic digestion of cow manure was conducted at room temperature with different hydraulic retention times (HRT) viz. 10, 18, 28, 38, 50 and 60 days. The digested cow manure (16%w/w dry weight solids) obtained from various HRTs was subjected to hydrothermal liquefaction at 350°C, 18MPa for a fixed reaction time of 30 min in the presence of 5 wt % Na2CO3. The results showed cumulative biogas production in the range of 3.9-22.6 m3/kgVSadded. HTL of the resultant digestates led to ∼20-42 wt % biocrude yield. The biocrude has a higher heating value (HHV) of 28.4-31.2 MJ/kg. About 76% energy, ∼51-83% carbon and ∼2-4% nitrogen was recovered in the biocrude following HTL of the digestates. A positive energy balance was achieved for the products derived from the combination of anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.


Eboibi B.E.O.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,Muradel Pty Ltd | Ashman P.J.,University of Adelaide | Chinnasamy S.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a two-part process for producing biocrude with reduced impurities. The biocrude was produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina sp. and Tetraselmis sp. in a batch reactor at both 300 and 350. °C, 5. min, and 16%. w/w solid feed composition. The resultant biocrudes were vacuum distilled at a maximum temperature of 360. °C. It was shown that biocrude quality could be enhanced without using catalyst by vacuum distillation (VD). The biocrude yield for Spirulina sp. was 36. wt% at 300. °C, 42. wt% at 350. °C, and for Tetraselmis sp. was 34. wt% at 300. °C, and 58. wt% at 350. °C. VD of Spirulina sp. biocrude obtained at 300 and 350. °C led to 62 and 67. wt% distilled biocrudes yield, respectively. VD of Tetraselmis sp. biocrude obtained at 300. °C was 70. wt%, and 73. wt% at 350. °C. The higher heating values (HHV) increased from 32. MJ/kg to 40. MJ/kg. There were substantial reductions in oxygen, metallic content, and boiling point ranges in distilled biocrudes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Eboibi B.E.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,Muradel Pty Ltd | Ashman P.J.,University of Adelaide | Chinnasamy S.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

The biomass of halophytic microalga Tetrasel mis sp. with 16%. w/w solids was converted into biocrude by a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process in a batch reactor at different temperatures (310, 330, 350 and 370. °C) and reaction times (5, 15, 30, 45 and 60. min). The biocrude yield, elemental composition, energy density and severity parameter obtained at various reaction conditions were used to predict the optimum condition for maximum recovery of biocrude with improved quality. This study clearly indicated that the operating condition for obtaining maximum biocrude yield and ideal quality biocrude for refining were different. A maximum biocrude yield of ~65. wt% ash free dry weight (AFDW) was obtained at 350. °C and 5. min, with a severity parameter and energy density of 5.21 and ~35. MJ/kg, respectively. The treatment with 45. min reaction time recorded ~62. wt% (AFDW) yield of biocrude with and energy density of ~39. MJ/kg and higher severity parameter of 7.53. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Eboibi B.E.,University of Adelaide | Eboibi B.E.,Delta State University | Lewis D.M.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,Muradel Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Direct conversion of microalgae to advanced biofuels with hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive option which has drawn attention in recent years. The presence of heteroatoms in the resultant biocrude, energy input and the process water has been a long-term concern. In this study, the pretreatment of microalgae biomass for protein extraction was conducted prior to HTL for biocrude production. The impact of operating conditions on both the pretreatment and hydrothermal liquefaction steps was investigated. Following HTL using the pretreated algae with an initial solid content of 16% w/w for 30 min at 310 °C, the biocrude yield was 65 wt%, which was more than a 50% improvement in yield as compared to HTL of untreated algae under the same reaction conditions. To achieve a similar biocrude yield using the untreated algae required a much higher reaction temperature of 350°C. Using recycled process water as reaction media led to a 25 wt% higher biocrude yield. HTL of pretreated algae led to 32-46% nitrogen reduction in resultant biocrude. The biocrude had a higher heating value (HHV) of 28 MJ kg-1 to 34 MJ kg-1. A maximum of 15 wt% protein extract was obtained during pretreatment at 150°C, 20 min. A similar energy input was required in biocrude production from the untreated route and the combined pretreatment and HTL. This journal is © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd and University of Adelaide
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2014

The biomass of halophytic microalga Tetraselmis sp. with 16%w/w solids was converted into biocrude by a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process in a batch reactor at different temperatures (310, 330, 350 and 370C) and reaction times (5, 15, 30, 45 and 60min). The biocrude yield, elemental composition, energy density and severity parameter obtained at various reaction conditions were used to predict the optimum condition for maximum recovery of biocrude with improved quality. This study clearly indicated that the operating condition for obtaining maximum biocrude yield and ideal quality biocrude for refining were different. A maximum biocrude yield of 65wt% ash free dry weight (AFDW) was obtained at 350C and 5min, with a severity parameter and energy density of 5.21 and 35MJ/kg, respectively. The treatment with 45min reaction time recorded 62wt% (AFDW) yield of biocrude with and energy density of 39MJ/kg and higher severity parameter of 7.53.


Ashokkumar V.,University of Technology Malaysia | Salam Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | Tiwari O.N.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development | Chinnasamy S.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd | Ani F.N.,University of Technology Malaysia
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2015

Algae are considered promising renewable feedstocks for the production of alternative fuels. In this study, an indigenous strain of Scenedesmus bijugatus found commonly in the fresh water bodies was isolated and evaluated for biofuels production. The alga was successfully mass cultivated in the custom made vertical tubular photobioreactor (250 L capacity) at semi-continuous mode. During the cultivation period, the volumetric biomass and lipid productivity were assessed. The alga S. bijugatus produced 0.26 g L-1 d-1 of dry biomass and 63 mg L-1 d-1 of lipids, respectively. Algal biomass was harvested by a combined harvesting process involving coagulation and flocculation using Iron (III) sulfate and an organic polymer which resulted in 98% harvesting efficiency. Lipid extraction using hexane:diethyl ether (1:2 ratio) resulted in maximum extraction of lipids. This study also examined sequential stages of esterification and transesterification to convert lipids to biodiesel. The maximum biodiesel yield of 0.21 g/g of dry biomass was obtained through the acid base catalytic process. The biodiesel fuel properties were tested and observed that most of the properties complying with ASTM D6751 specifications. The lipid extracted residual biomass recorded a yield of 0.158 g of bioethanol per g. This study confirmed the potential of lipid extracted biomass for the production of bioethanol to improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biorefinery. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ratha S.K.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt Ltd | Rao P.H.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt Ltd | Rao P.H.,Madras Christian College | Govindaswamy K.,Aban Infrastructure Pvt Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2015

A rapid and efficient estimation of microalgal biomass is very important to assess the growth performance of algal strains used for the production of biofuels and other high-value products. Areal and volumetric productivities of biomass are considered important in algal growth studies. A fast and reliable method for the measurement of microalgal biomass using a moisture analyser was standardised and validated in this study using different microalgal strains, viz., Botryococcus braunii, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., Arthrospira sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Conventional oven-drying method was compared with moisture analyser method for analysis time, accuracy and repeatability. The average time required for analysis using a moisture analyser was 22:0, 12:38, 9:03 and 7:08 (min:s), respectively, at 60, 80, 100 and 120 °C for B. braunii. For the algal cultures with 0.1–1.2 g L−1 cell concentration, 10-mL culture volume was sufficient to get reliable dry weight using moisture analyser. To measure large number of samples, a modified method was developed which required pre-drying of samples in hot air oven at 80 °C for 15 min prior to dry weight measurement in a moisture analyser at 100 °C. The drying time in the moisture analyser varied based on the cell morphology. Unicellular Chlorella sp. with highest cell concentration of 1.2 g L−1 required less than 10 min of drying time, whereas the filamentous Arthrospira sp. with cell concentration of 1.1 g L−1 required about 15 min. Time required for the dry weight analysis of 100 samples using modified moisture analyser method was 281:40 (min:s), and the total power consumption was 2.45 kWh, which was significantly lower than the analysis done using conventional oven-drying method. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Lavanya M.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Lavanya M.,Anna University | Meenakshisundaram A.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Renganathan S.,Anna University | And 4 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Anna University, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd, Muradel Pty Ltd and Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2016

Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels.


Viswanathan T.,University of Georgia | Mani S.,University of Georgia | Das K.C.,University of Georgia | Chinnasamy S.,ABAN Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

This paper investigated the effect of cell rupturing methods on the drying characteristics and the lipid compositions of a green algae consortium grown in an open raceway pond. The ruptured microalgae samples obtained from French press, autoclave and sonication methods were used for conducting thin layer drying experiment at four drying temperatures (30, 50, 70 and 90°C). The rate of moisture removal at each drying condition was recorded until no change in moisture loss. A typical drying curve for a microalgae consortium indicated that the rate of drying was limited by diffusion. Among three drying models (Newton, Page and Henderson-Pabis) used to fit the drying data, Page model fitted well on the experimental drying data with a coefficient of determination (R 2) of 0.99. Solvent extraction of French press ruptured cells produced the highest total lipid yield with no significant change in lipid compositions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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