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Rai K.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Hegde A.M.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages of lactation, stored at various temperatures and durations. Expressed breastmilk (EBM) samples of the third, seventh and 30th day were collected from women who had term and preterm deliveries (n=20). Another cohort of women (n=20) was also assessed; these women were more than five months postpartum and lactating. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of EBM was assessed at zero hours at room temperature, at 48 hours, one week post-refrigeration (4 °C), and freezing (-8 °C) respectively using the phosphomolybdenum method. The highest antioxidant levels were found in colostrum. The TAC of EBM reduced with time and at post-refrigeration and after freezing (p<0.0005). No significant difference in the mean TAC was observed between the EBM samples obtained from women with either term or preterm deliveries. The progressive loss of antioxidant content of EBM emphasizes the need of awareness and curtailment of the practice of storing and later use of EBM. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Spoorthi B.R.,Bapuji Dental College and Hospital | Bhat V.M.,Bapuji Dental College and Hospital | Bhat V.M.,AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011

The study of gross specimens is an integral part in learning oral pathology. Unfortunately their storage and handling using traditional formalin is discouragingly difficult. This review describes an alternative approach called "plastination" to study and teach gross specimens using silicone polymers. The process is simple, inexpensive, and can be carried out in any histology laboratory to produce dry, odorless, durable, life-like, maintenance-free, and nonhazardous specimens. Unfortunately the process of plastination for oral specimens has received little attention since its invention. Therefore, an innovative attempt on oral specimens using locally available resin was tried by us. The specimens remained well preserved in dry state without any color change. We recommend this process for any oral pathology department for maintaining museum and for both undergraduate and postgraduate training.


Pendyala G.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Thomas B.,Rural Dental College | Joshi S.R.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been linked with oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense. A connection has been established between diabetes and periodontal disease. Aim: The aim of present study was to compare salivary total antioxidant capacity of type 2 DM patients and healthy subjects with and without periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects consisting of 30 type 2 DM patients with periodontal disease; 30 type 2 DM patients without periodontal disease; 30 healthy subjects with periodontal disease; 30 healthy subjects without periodontal disease were included in the study. After clinical measurement and samplings, total antioxidant capacity in saliva of type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects were determined, and the data were tested by non parametric tests. Total antioxidant capacity of the clinical samples was determined spectrophotometrically. Results: The mean salivary total antioxidant capacity was lowest in diabetic patients with periodontitis. Conclusion: Total antioxidant capacity is inversely proportional to the severity of inflammation and can be used as an useful marker of periodontitis in healthy and diabetic patients.


Jain G.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Shetty P.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Material and Methods: a questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories. Results: Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11-15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15-30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope. Conclusions: The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them. © 2014 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Shetty V.,Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Craniofacial Surgery | Shetty V.,Ks Hegde Charitable Hospital | Vyas H.J.,Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Craniofacial Surgery | Sharma S.M.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Sailer H.F.,Toblerstrasse 51
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the effects of nasoalveolar moulding (NAM) in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate infants presenting for treatment at different ages; propose a new NAM protocol in these patients; improve the predictability of NAM. Study groups comprised: group I (n = 15) treated with NAM within 1 month of age; group II (n = 15) treated with NAM between 1 and 5 months of age. Control: group III (n = 15) comprised of non-cleft 18-month old children. A standard protocol was followed. Patients were evaluated before initiation of NAM, before cheiloplasty and at 18 months. 7 linear anthropometric measurements were compared using dento-facial models. Statistical analysis before and after NAM revealed that group I patients demonstrated 81%, 198%, 69% and 145% improvement in intersegment distance, nasal height, nasal dome height and columella height respectively; whilst group II patients demonstrated 51%, 33%, 21% and 38% improvement for the same. At 18 months, group I patients closely resembled group III patients. This study concluded that the effects of NAM were most significant in group I. Group II patients also benefited from NAM, although to a lesser extent. This study validates the use of NAM in infants presenting late for treatment. © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Rai K.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Hegde A.M.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Jose N.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviours. Autistic children have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. A wide spectrum of medical and behavioural symptoms is exhibited by children with autism, which makes routine dental care very difficult in them. Mental retardation is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders including autism are associated with increased oxidative stress. Objectives: To evaluate the oral health status of children with autism and to determine the salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant concentration (TAC). Materials and methods: 101 subjects with autism between age group of 6 and 12 year were part of the study and 50 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as control group. Oral health status was analysed using oral hygiene index-simplified and dentition status index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phosphomolybdic acid using spectrophotometric method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A statistically very highly significant difference was seen in the mean oral hygiene index scores (autistic group - 1.2 and control group - 1, P < 0.001) and the mean salivary total antioxidant concentration (autistic group - 5.7 μg/ml and control group - 38 μg/ml, P < 0.001). No statistical significant difference was observed in the dental caries status and the salivary pH of autistic group and the control group. Conclusions: Similar dental caries status was observed in children with autism and their healthy normal siblings. Oral hygiene was poor in children with autism whereas the Salivary TAC was significantly reduced in autistic children. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Muralee Mohan C.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Thakral A.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science | Bhat S.K.,Ab Shetty Memorial Institute Of Dental Science
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012

Extranodal lymphoma of the head and neck comprises a heterogeneous group of tumours with different histological types, modes of presentation and prognosis. Lymphomatous involvement of skeletal muscles and particularly muscles of mastication and facial expression is extremely rare, but primary muscle lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle masses. This article highlights clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving masseter and buccinator muscles in an immunocompetent patient. © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Shetty S.R.,AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental science
Journal of oral science | Year: 2010

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly prescribed in dental practice after minor oral surgical procedures such as tooth extraction. Diclofenac sodium is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs widely used for pain relief in dentistry. Although adverse reactions to these drugs are rare, at times they can cause a life-threatening phenomenon. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is one such potentially lethal adverse drug reaction. Most reported cases of analgesic-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome were due to oxicams or propionic acid derivatives. There are very few detailed reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to use of diclofenac. We report here a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome which occurred due to use of diclofenac sodium. The clinical features of this condition and multidisciplinary management of the patient are described in brief.


Samuel S.,AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental science
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Spindle cell carcinomas (sarcomatoid carcinomas) are rare tumours. It is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma which has spindled tumour cells, which simulate a true sarcoma, but are epithelial in origin. They are extremely uncommon in the head and neck region. Only five cases with maxillary origin have been discussed in the literature. As compared to squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor diagnosis and advanced disease at presentation, as is demonstrated in the case presented. There are no standard recommendations for management owing to the rarity of this histology. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. We report a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma involving the maxilla.


Samuel S.,AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental science
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry.

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