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Reinwarth M.,TU Darmstadt | Avrutina O.,TU Darmstadt | Fabritz S.,AB Sciex Germany GmbH | Kolmar H.,TU Darmstadt
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Over the last decades the field of pharmaceutically relevant peptides has enormously expanded. Among them, several peptide families exist that contain three or more disulfide bonds. In this context, elucidation of the disulfide patterns is extremely important as these motifs are often prerequisites for folding, stability, and activity. An example of this structure-determining pattern is a cystine knot which comprises three constrained disulfide bonds and represents a core element in a vast number of mechanically interlocked peptidic structures possessing different biological activities. Herein, we present our studies on disulfide pattern determination and structure elucidation of cystine-knot miniproteins derived from Momordica cochinchinensis peptide MCoTI-II, which act as potent inhibitors of human matriptase-1. A top-down mass spectrometric analysis of the oxidised and bioactive peptides is described. Following the detailed sequencing of the peptide backbone, interpretation of the MS3spectra allowed for the verification of the knotted topology of the examined miniproteins. Moreover, we found that the fragmentation pattern depends on the knottin's folding state, hence, tertiary structure, which to our knowledge has not been described for a top-down MS approach before. © 2014 Reinwarth et al.


Lehmann S.,Institut Universitaire de France | Hoofnagle A.,University of Washington | Hochstrasser D.,University of Geneva | Brede C.,University of Stavanger | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using pro teomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in ' functional ' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteo mics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).


Glotzbach B.,TU Darmstadt | Reinwarth M.,TU Darmstadt | Weber N.,TU Darmstadt | Fabritz S.,AB SCIEX Germany GmbH | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Cystine-knot miniproteins define a class of bioactive molecules with several thousand natural members. Their eponymous motif comprises a rigid structured core formed by six disulfide-connected cysteine residues, which accounts for its exceptional stability towards thermic or proteolytic degradation. Since they display a remarkable sequence tolerance within their disulfide-connected loops, these molecules are considered promising frameworks for peptide-based pharmaceuticals. Natural open-chain cystine-knot trypsin inhibitors of the MCoTI (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor) and SOTI (Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitor) families served as starting points for the generation of inhibitors of matriptase-1, a type II transmembrane serine protease with possible clinical relevance in cancer and arthritic therapy. Yeast surface-displayed libraries of miniproteins were used to select unique and potent matriptase-1 inhibitors. To this end, a knowledge-based library design was applied that makes use of detailed information on binding and folding behavior of cystine-knot peptides. Five inhibitor variants, four of the MCoTI family and one of the SOTI family, were identified, chemically synthesized and oxidatively folded towards the bioactive conformation. Enzyme assays revealed inhibition constants in the low nanomolar range for all candidates. One subnanomolar binder (Ki = 0.83 nM) with an inverted selectivity towards trypsin and matriptase-1 was identified. © 2013 Glotzbach et al.


PubMed | AB Sciex Germany GmbH and TU Darmstadt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Over the last decades the field of pharmaceutically relevant peptides has enormously expanded. Among them, several peptide families exist that contain three or more disulfide bonds. In this context, elucidation of the disulfide patterns is extremely important as these motifs are often prerequisites for folding, stability, and activity. An example of this structure-determining pattern is a cystine knot which comprises three constrained disulfide bonds and represents a core element in a vast number of mechanically interlocked peptidic structures possessing different biological activities. Herein, we present our studies on disulfide pattern determination and structure elucidation of cystine-knot miniproteins derived from Momordica cochinchinensis peptide MCoTI-II, which act as potent inhibitors of human matriptase-1. A top-down mass spectrometric analysis of the oxidised and bioactive peptides is described. Following the detailed sequencing of the peptide backbone, interpretation of the MS(3) spectra allowed for the verification of the knotted topology of the examined miniproteins. Moreover, we found that the fragmentation pattern depends on the knottins folding state, hence, tertiary structure, which to our knowledge has not been described for a top-down MS approach before.


Palmesino E.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine | Palmesino E.,Helsinn Healthcare SA | Apuzzo T.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine | Apuzzo T.,University of Palermo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2016

Chemokine receptors are key regulators of leukocyte trafficking but also have an important role in development, tumor growth, andmetastasis. Among the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 is the only one that leads to perinatal death when genetically ablated in mice, indicating a more-widespread function in development. To identify pathways that are activated downstream of CXCR4, a solubilization protocol was elaborated, which allows for the isolation of the endogenous receptor from human cells in its near-native conformation. Solubilized CXCR4 is recognized by the conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody 12G5 and retains the ability to bind CXCL12 in solution, which was abolished in the presence of receptor antagonists. Mass spectrometry of CXCR4 immunoprecipitates revealed a specific interaction with the pentameric eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. The observation that the addition of CXCL12 leads to the dissociation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B from CXCR4 suggests that stimulation of the receptor may trigger the local protein synthesis required for efficient cell movement. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.


Simm S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Papasotiriou D.G.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Papasotiriou D.G.,Hill International | Ibrahim M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 9 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

High-throughput protein localization studies require multiple strategies. Mass spectrometric analysis of defined cellular fractions is one of the complementary approaches to a diverse array of cell biological methods. In recent years, the protein content of different cellular (sub-)compartments was approached. Despite of all the efforts made, the analysis of membrane fractions remains difficult, in that the dissection of the proteomes of the envelope membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria is often not reliable because sample purity is not always warranted. Moreover, proteomic studies are often restricted to single (model) species, and therefore limited in respect to differential individual evolution. In this study we analyzed the chloroplast envelope proteomes of different plant species, namely, the individual proteomes of inner and outer envelope (OE) membrane of Pisum sativum and the mixed envelope proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago sativa. The analysis of all three species yielded 341 identified proteins in total, 247 of them being unique. 39 proteins were genuine envelope proteins found in at least two species. Based on this and previous envelope studies we defined the core envelope proteome of chloroplasts. Comparing the general overlap of the available six independent studies (including ours) revealed only a number of 27 envelope proteins. Depending on the stringency of applied selection criteria we found 231 envelope proteins, while less stringent criteria increases this number to 649 putative envelope proteins. Based on the latter we provide a map of the outer and inner envelope core proteome, which includes many yet uncharacterized proteins predicted to be involved in transport, signaling, and response. Furthermore, a foundation for the functional characterization of yet unidentified functions of the inner and OE for further analyses is provided. © 2013 Simm, Papasotiriou, Ibrahim, Leisegang, Müller, Schorge, Karas, Mirus, Sommer and Schleiff.


Rohrich C.R.,Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology | Rohrich C.R.,AB SCIEX Germany GmbH | Jaklitsch W.M.,University of Vienna | Voglmayr H.,University of Vienna | And 9 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

Approximately 950 individual sequences of non-ribosomally biosynthesised peptides are produced by the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea that belong to a perpetually growing class of mostly linear antibiotic oligopeptides, which are rich in the non-proteinogenic α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib). Thus, they are comprehensively named peptaibiotics. Notably, peptaibiotics represent ca. 80 % of the total inventory of secondary metabolites currently known from Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Their unique membrane-modifying bioactivity results from amphipathicity and helicity, thus making them ideal candidates in assisting both colonisation and defence of the natural habitats by their fungal producers. Despite this, reports on the in vivo-detection of peptaibiotics have scarcely been published in the past. In order to evaluate the significance of peptaibiotic production for a broader range of potential producers, we screened nine specimens belonging to seven hitherto uninvestigated fungicolous or saprotrophic Trichoderma/Hypocrea species by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry. Sequences of peptaibiotics found were independently confirmed by analysing the peptaibiome of pure agar cultures obtained by single-ascospore isolation from the specimens. Of the nine species examined, five were screened positive for peptaibiotics. A total of 78 peptaibiotics were sequenced, 56 (= 72 %) of which are new. Notably, dihydroxyphenylalaninol and O-prenylated tyrosinol, two C-terminal residues, which have not been reported for peptaibiotics before, were found as well as new and recurrent sequences carrying the recently described tyrosinol residue at their C-terminus. The majority of peptaibiotics sequenced are 18- or 19-residue peptaibols. Structural homologies with ‘classical representatives’ of subfamily 1 (SF1)-peptaibiotics argue for the formation of transmembrane ion channels, which are prone to facilitate the producer capture and defence of its substratum. © 2014, The Author(s).


Timm T.,Justus Liebig University | Lenz C.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Lenz C.,University of Gottingen | Merkel D.,AB Sciex Germany GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Phosphorylcholine (PC)-modified biomolecules like lipopolysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and (glyco)proteins are widespread, highly relevant antigens of parasites, since this small hapten shows potent immunomodulatory capacity, which allows the establishment of long-lasting infections of the host. Especially for PC-modified proteins, structural data is rare because of the zwitterionic nature of the PC substituent, resulting in low sensitivities and unusual but characteristic fragmentation patterns. We have developed a targeted mass spectrometric approach using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap (QTRAP) mass spectrometry coupled to nanoflow chromatography for the sensitive detection of PC-modified peptides from complex proteolytic digests, and the localization of the PC-modification within the peptide backbone. In a first step, proteolytic digests are screened using precursor ion scanning for the marker ions of choline (m/z 104.1) and phosphorylcholine (m/z 184.1) to establish the presence of PC-modified peptides. Potential PC-modified precursors are then subjected to a second analysis using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-triggered product ion spectra for the identification and site localization of the modified peptides. The approach was first established using synthetic PC-modified synthetic peptides and PC-modified model digests. Following the optimization of key parameters, we then successfully applied the method to the detection of PC-peptides in the background of a proteolytic digest of a whole proteome. This methodological invention will greatly facilitate the detection of PC-substituted biomolecules and their structural analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.


Szewczyk R.,University of Lodz | Sobon A.,University of Lodz | Sylwia R.,University of Lodz | Dzitko K.,University of Lodz | And 2 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2014

4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC); pollutants that cause serious disturbances in the environment. This study shows the degradation pathway and initial proteome analysis in cultures of a fungus that actively degrades 4-n-NP, Metarhizium robertsii. The research revealed the presence of 14 4-n-NP metabolites formed as a result of the oxidation of the alkyl chain and benzene ring, which leads to the complete decomposition of the compound. Based on the trend and quantitative analysis of the formation of 4-n-NP derivatives, the best conditions for proteome analysis were established. The data collected allowed the formulation of an explanation of the microorganism's strategy towards the removal of 4-n-NP. The main groups of proteins engaged in the removal of the xenobiotic are: oxidation-reduction systems related to nitroreductase-like proteins, ROS defense systems (peroxiredoxin and superoxide dismutase), the TCA cycle and energy-related systems. Principal components analysis was applied to unidentified proteins, resulting in the formulation of three subgroups and initial classification of these proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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