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Freedman N.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Park Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Abnet C.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Hollenbeck A.R.,AARP | Sinha R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. METHODS: We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and causespecific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. RESULTS: During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

English J.,AARP
Academic Medicine | Year: 2016

Person-centered care, in which an individual patient's goals and preferences are treated as paramount, should be the standard throughout the nation. Achieving this ideal will require a change in the culture of health care, and medical schools can play a vital role in helping achieve it. Lack of communication, uncoordinated services, and dealings with sometimes-aloof clinicians and staff all can increase stress and undermine a person's sense of well-being. In a person-centered system, such experiences would be much less common. The cultural shift starts with the idea of "engaging the consumer" rather than "treating the patient." Such engagement requires honoring individuality. The doctor may have a certain way of doing things. But people vary enormously in their values and priorities. They have different goals, different thresholds of pain, different anxieties, different needs for support, different backgrounds, and different resources to draw on. Individuals should feel empowered, aware of their choices, and connected to their health care providers through meaningful communication and understanding. They deserve to feel that their personal dignity and their wishes are a top priority. They should be made to feel that they, along with their caregivers, are members of the care team. This change will benefit not only patients and families but doctors as well. Doctors will benefit from more insight into the individuals they serve, their interactions with consumers and caregivers will be more positive, and the quality of care will improve. © 2014 by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Source

Kabat G.C.,Yeshiva University | Matthews C.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kamensky V.,Yeshiva University | Hollenbeck A.R.,AARP | Rohan T.E.,Yeshiva University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Several health agencies have issued guidelines promoting behaviors to reduce chronic disease risk; however, little is known about the impact of such guidelines, particularly on cancer incidence. Objective: The objective was to determine whether greater adherence to the American Cancer Society (ACS) cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. Design: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 566,401 adults aged 50-71 y at recruitment in 1995-1996, was followed for a median of 10.5 y for cancer incidence, 12.6 y for cancer mortality, and 13.6 y for total mortality. Participants who reported a history of cancer or who had missing data were excluded, yielding 476,396 subjects for analysis. We constructed a 5-level score measuring adherence to ACS guidelines, which included baseline body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and several aspects of diet. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute HRs and 95% CIs for the association of the adherence score with cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. All analyses included fine adjustment for cigarette smoking. Results: Among 476,396 participants, 73,784 incident first cancers, 16,193 cancer deaths, and 81,433 deaths from all causes were identified in the cohort. Adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with reduced risk of all cancers combined: HRs (95% CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest level of adherence were 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) in men and 0.81 (0.77, 0.84) in women. Fourteen of 25 specific cancer sites showed a reduction in risk associated with increased adherence. Adherence was also associated with reduced cancer mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.75 (0.70, 0.80) in men and 0.76 (0.70, 0.83) in women] and reduced all-cause mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) in men and 0.67 (0.65, 0.70) in women]. Conclusions: In both men and women, adherence to the ACS guidelines was associated with reductions in all-cancer incidence and the incidence of cancer at specific sites, as well as with reductions in cancer mortality and total mortality. These data suggest that, after accounting for cigarette smoking, adherence to a set of healthy behaviors may have considerable health benefits. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Xiao Q.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Arem H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moore S.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Hollenbeck A.R.,AARP | Matthews C.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

The relationship between sleep and obesity or weight gain in adults, particularly older populations, remains unclear. In a cohort of 83,377 US men and women aged 51-72 years, we prospectively investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and weight change over an average of 7.5 years of follow-up (1995- 2004). Participants were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline and throughout the follow-up. We observed an inverse association between sleep duration per night and weight gain in both men (P for trend = 0.02) and women (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with 7-8 hours of sleep, shorter sleep (<5 hours or 5-6 hours) was associated with more weight gain (in kilograms; men: For <5 hours, â = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19, 1.13, and for 5-6 hours, â = 0.12, 95% CI: .0.02, 0.26; women: For <5 hours, â = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.86, and for 5-6 hours, â = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.37). Among men and women who were not obese at baseline, participants who reported less than 5 hours of sleep per night had an approximately 40% higher risk of developing obesity than did those who reported 7-8 hours of sleep (for men, odds ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.99; for women, odds ratio = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.79). The association between short sleep and excess weight gain was generally consistent across different categories of age, educational level, smoking status, baseline body mass index, and physical activity level. © 2013 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. Source

Planning for retirement has become increasingly complicated over the last three decades just as the stakes have risen for the individual investor. People saving and investing for retirement face an increasingly complex market with many new financial products-and product features-sold by a variety of sales professionals. With retirement products ranging from traditional banking to insurance to securities, it can be hard enough for an expert to get the right product mix, let alone those who are doing it on their own. This article broadly describes the professionals who sell retirement investments, the products and services they offer, and the inherent risks. Copyright © 2012 American Society on Aging. Source

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