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Saint Petersburg, Russia

Callaghan T.V.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Johansson M.,Lund University | Brown R.D.,Environment Canada | Groisman P.Y.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 17 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2011

Analysis of in situ and satellite data shows evidence of different regional snow cover responses to the widespread warming and increasing winter precipitation that has characterized the Arctic climate for the past 40-50 years. The largest and most rapid decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover duration (SCD) are observed over maritime regions of the Arctic with the highest precipitation amounts. There is also evidence of marked differences in the response of snow cover between the North American and Eurasian sectors of the Arctic, with the North American sector exhibiting decreases in snow cover and snow depth over the entire period of available in situ observations from around 1950, while widespread decreases in snow cover are not apparent over Eurasia until after around 1980. However, snow depths are increasing in many regions of Eurasia. Warming and more frequent winter thaws are contributing to changes in snow pack structure with important implications for land use and provision of ecosystem services. Projected changes in snow cover from Global Climate Models for the 2050 period indicate increases in maximum SWE of up to 15% over much of the Arctic, with the largest increases (15-30%) over the Siberian sector. In contrast, SCD is projected to decrease by about 10-20% over much of the Arctic, with the smallest decreases over Siberia (\10%) and the largest decreases over Alaska and northern Scandinavia (30-40%) by 2050. These projected changes will have far-reaching consequences for the climate system, human activities, hydrology, and ecology. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012.

Callaghan T.V.,Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences | Johansson M.,Lund University | Brown R.D.,Ouranos | Groisman P.Ya.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 27 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2011

Snow cover plays a major role in the climate, hydrological and ecological systems of the Arctic and other regions through its influence on the surface energy balance (e.g. reflectivity), water balance (e.g. water storage and release), thermal regimes (e.g. insulation), vegetation and trace gas fluxes. Feedbacks to the climate system have global consequences. The livelihoods and well-being of Arctic residents and many services for the wider population depend on snow conditions so changes have important consequences. Already, changing snow conditions, particularly reduced summer soil moisture, winter thaw events and rain-on-snow conditions have negatively affected commercial forestry, reindeer herding, some wild animal populations and vegetation. Reductions in snow cover are also adversely impacting indigenous peoples' access to traditional foods with negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, there are likely to be some benefits from a changing Arctic snow regime such as more even run-off from melting snow that favours hydropower operations. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012.

Zhuravskiy D.,AARI | Ivanov B.,AARI | Pavlov A.,AARI
Polar Geography | Year: 2012

This article presents analysis of ice condition variability in Gronfjorden Bay, Svalbard, from 1974 to 2008. A dataset was created containing 18 fast-ice charac ristics for Gronfjordn Bay. Thedata of theiceconditions and main oceanographic and meteorological characteristics are analyzed. The analysis confirms thetndncy toward a lss harsh climateduring thelast quartr of the twentieth and the beginning of twenty-first centuries in the area of Gronfjorden Bay. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

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