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Århus, Denmark

Viezzoli A.,Aarhus Geophysics Aps | Tosi L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Teatini P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Teatini P.,University of Padua | Silvestri S.,MARTE Srl
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

A comprehensive investigation of the mixing between salt/fresh surficial water and groundwater in transitional environments is an issue of paramount importance considering the ecological, cultural, and socio-economic relevance of coastal zones. Acquiring information, which can improve the process understanding, is often logistically challenging, and generally expensive and slow in these areas. Here we investigate the capability of airborne electromagnetics (AEM) at the margin of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The quasi-3D interpretation of the AEM outcome by the spatially constrained inversion (SCI) methodology allows us to accurately distinguish several hydrogeological features down to a depth of about 200 m. For example, the extent of the saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and the transition between the upper salt saturated and the underlying fresher sediments below the lagoon bottom are detected. The research highlights the AEM capability to improve the hydrogeological characterization of subsurface processes in worldwide lagoons, wetlands, deltas. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Sapia V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Oldenborger G.A.,Geological Survey of Canada | Viezzoli A.,Aarhus Geophysics Aps | Marchetti M.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2014

Helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) surveys often suffer from significant inaccuracies in the early-time or near-surface data-a problem that can lead to errors in the inverse model or limited near-surface resolution in the event that early time gates are removed. We present an example illustrating the use of seismic data to constrain the model recovered from an HTEM survey over the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer in Manitoba, Canada. The incorporation of seismic reflection surfaces results in improved near-surface resistivity in addition to a more continuous bedrock interface with a sharper contact. The seismic constraints reduce uncertainty in the resistivity values of the overlying layers, although no a priori information is added directly to those layers. Subsequently, we use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and borehole data to verify the constrained HTEM models. Treating the ERT and borehole logs as reference information, we perform an iterative time-shift calibration of the HTEM soundings to achieve regional-scale consistency between the recovered HTEM models and the reference information. Given the relatively small time-shifts employed, this calibration procedure most significantly affects the early-time data and brings the first useable time gate to a time earlier than the nominal first gate after ramp off. Although time shifts are small, changes in the model are observed from the near-surface to depths of 100. m. Calibration is combined with seismic constraints to achieve a model with the greatest level of consistency between data sets and, thus, the greatest degree of confidence. For the Spiritwood buried valley, calibrated and constrained models reveal more structure in the valley-fill sediments and increased continuity of the bedrock contact. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Christiansen A.V.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Auken E.,University of Aarhus | Viezzoli A.,Aarhus Geophysics Aps
Geophysics | Year: 2011

Being able to recover accurate and quantitative descriptions of the subsurface electrical conductivity structure from airborne electromagnetic data is becoming more and more crucial in many applications such as hydrogeophysical and environmental mapping, but also for mining exploration. The effect on the inverted models of inaccurate system description in the 1D forward modeling of helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data was studied. The most important system parameters needed for accurate description of the subsurface conductivity were quantified using a nominal airborne TEM system and three different reference models to ensure the generality of the conclusions. By calculating forward responses, the effect of changing the system transfer function of the nominal airborne TEM system was studied in detail. The data were inverted and the consequences of inaccurate modeling of the system transfer function were studied inthe model space. Errors in the description of the transfer function influence the inverted model differently. The low-pass filters, current turn-off, and receiver-transmitter (Rx-Tx) timing issues primarily influenced the early time gates. The waveform repetition, gate integration, altitude, and geometry mainly influenced the late time gates. Depth of investigation is highly model dependent, but in general the early times hold information on the shallower parts of the model and the late times hold information on the deeper parts of the model. Amplitude, gain, and current variations affect the entire sounding and therefore the entire model. The results showed that all of these parameters should be measured and modeled accurately during inversion of airborne TEM data. If not, the output model can differ quite dramatically from the true model. Layer boundaries can be inaccurate by tens of meters, and layer resistivities by as much as an order of magnitude. In the worst cases, the measured data simply cannot be fitted within noise level. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source

Di Massa D.,University of Naples Federico II | Florio G.,University of Naples Federico II | Viezzoli A.,Aarhus Geophysics Aps
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2016

This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems.Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal.We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient.The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sapia V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Viezzoli A.,Aarhus Geophysics Aps | Oldenborger G.,Geological Survey of Canada
Near Surface Geophysics | Year: 2015

Airborne time-domain electromagnetic methods (AEM) are useful for hydrogeological mapping due to their rapid and extensive spatial coverage and high correlation between measured magnetic fields, electrical conductivity, and relevant hydrogeological parameters. However, AEM data, preprocessing and modelling procedures can suffer from inaccuracies that may dramatically affect the final interpretation. We demonstrate the importance and the benefits of advanced data processing for two AEM datasets (AeroTEM III and VTEM) collected over the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer in southern Manitoba, Canada. Early-time data gates are identified as having significant flightdependent signal bias that reflects survey flights and flight lines. These data are removed from inversions along with late time data gates contaminated by apparently random noise. In conjunction with supporting information, the less-extensive, but broader-band VTEM data are used to construct an electrical reference model. The reference model is subsequently used to calibrate the AeroTEM dataset via forward modelling for coincident soundings. The procedure produces calibration factors that we apply to AeroTEM data over the entire survey domain. Inversion of the calibrated data results in improved data fits, particularly at early times, but some flight-line artefacts remain. Residual striping between adjacent flights is corrected by including a mean empirical amplitude correction factor within the spatially constrained inversion scheme. Finally, the AeroTEM and VTEM data are combined in a joint inversion. Results confirm consistency between the two different AEM datasets and the recovered models. On the contrary, joint inversion of unprocessed or uncalibrated AEM datasets results in erroneous resistivity models which, in turn, can result in an inappropriate hydrogeological interpretation of the study area. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers. Source

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