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Tamilnadu, India

Sivanesskumar S.,AAMEC | Sukanesh R.,TCE
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2010

Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA), a promising technology for the 4G communication systems is considered in this paper. The foremost limitation of such system is the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) which is due to frequency-selective fading, near-far effect, frequency offset, and nonlinear power amplification. The performance of MC-CDMA under such scenario is poor and optimal detection is one of the solutions with a high complexity tag attached. Use of global optimization for such detectors, especially using Global Search algorithm is considered in this paper. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance analysis is performed for frequency fading channels with and without non linear distortion. © 2005-2010 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved. Source


Vishali S.,SRM University | Karthikeyan R.,AAMEC
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

In this study, the potentiality of Cactus opuntia (ficus-indica), as a coagulant for the treatment of simulated industrial water-based paint wastewater in terms of colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity was investigated. The coagulation ability was assessed for 1 L of effluent using the standard jar test apparatus by varying the operational variables like eluent type (water, NaCl and BaCl2), eluent concentration (1-5 N), coagulant dosage (1-6 g), coagulant volume (20-100 mL), initial pH (5-11) and initial effluent concentration (3100, 4224, 5650, 6258 and 7693 mg/L named as sample number 1-5, respectively). The results were maximum when 100 mL of 3 g of C. opuntia, eluted using 3 N NaCl was used as a coagulant to treat a litre of effluent. The favourable pH to run the treatment was confirmed as the actual pH of the sample (7.2-7.8). It was found that the removal efficiency increased as the pollution load swelled. The FTIR study revealed the presence of various functional groups, which are responsible for the coagulation process. The obtained results were compared with conventional coagulant ferric chloride. The results acknowledged that Cactus opuntia (ficus-indica) a natural, eco-friendly coagulant, could be a strong alternative to the conventional coagulant in the treatment of water-based paint wastewater. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Vishali S.,SRM University | Karthikeyan R.,AAMEC
Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to find a solution for the treatment of simulated industrial paint effluent using natural material, Strychnos potatorum, as a coagulant. The coagulation capacity was evaluated for a liter of effluent using standard jar test apparatus. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the existence of various functional groups in S. potatorum. The residence of proteins tied with coagulant treatment were determined and analyzed over SDS PAGE. The predominance of determining variables such as eluent type (water, NaCl, KCl), eluent concentration (1-5N), coagulant dosage (1-10 g), coagulant volume (20-100 mL), initial pH (5-11), and initial effluent concentration (3100, 4224, 5650, 6258, and 7693 mg/L named as sample number 1 to 5, respectively) were valued in terms of color, COD, and turbidity. The choicest outcome of the treatment was identified as, 2 g of S. potatorum, 3N NaCl as an eluent, 100 mL of coagulant volume, and the actual pH of the sample (7.2-7.8). It was found that the removal efficiency increased as the pollution load swelled. The results were matched with conventional coagulant alum. The amount of sludge formation was appreciably lower for natural coagulant. The results affirmed that the S. potatorum could act as an alternate solution for the paint effluent treatment. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Vishali S.,SRM University | Rashmi P.,SRM University | Karthikeyan R.,AAMEC
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

The study was focused on, to make use of the agro-based material Strychnos potatorum as an adsorbent, for the treatment of simulated water-based paint industry effluent (PIE) in a fixed-bed adsorption column (FBC). The influence of bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration of PIE were evaluated in terms of color removal efficiency. The highest color removal was achieved at a larger breakthrough time, and lengthier mass transfer zone was viewed at the lowest flow rate, lowest initial concentration, and highest bed height used in this study. For a successful design of a FBC, breakthrough curves were made and the experimental data were fitted using well-established models such as: Thomas/Bed depth service time (BDST), Adams–Bohart, Yoon–Nelson, and Wang. From the plot of these models, parameters like adsorption capacity and rate constants were calculated. Mass transfer models like Weber–Morris, Boyd, Urano–Tachkawa, and Mathews–Weber were applied to identify the rate-limiting step of the overall adsorption process. All the model parameter values, which are the basis for the process design at a real scale were calculated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it was suggested that the agro-based material S. potatorum, affirmed its positive potentiality and could be used economically and effectively, as an adsorbent in the treatment of hazardous PIE. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Vishali S.,SRM University | Rashmi P.,SRM University | Karthikeyan R.,AAMEC
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

The ability of the wasted biomaterial crab shells, Portunus sanguinolentus, as a coagulant, in the treatment of simulated water-based paint industry effluent was evaluated. The treatment process was conducted in conventional jar test. The FTIR spectrum values endorse the existence of chitosan in P. sanguinolentus. The leverage of variables such as time (min), eluent type (deionized water, NaCl, and BaCl2), eluent concentration (1–5 N), coagulant dose (1–6 g), coagulant volume (20–100 mL), initial pH (5–10), and initial concentration (3,100, 4,224, 5,650, 6,258, and 7,693 mg/L named as sample number 1–5, respectively) were investigated in terms of color, chemical oxygen demand, and turbidity. The optimized value of the above-mentioned variables were examined and the values are 20 min of slow mixing, 15 min of settling course, 3 N NaCl as an eluent, and 100 mL of 3 g crab shells eluate to treat 1 L of effluent under basic pH. The maximum removal efficiency was identified for higher initial concentration effluent, sample 5. The results were compared with conventional coagulant alum and ferric chloride from previous studies. The wasted biomaterial crab shells could act as propitious surrogate for conventional coagulants. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

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