Espoo, Finland
Espoo, Finland

Aalto University is a university primarily located in Greater Helsinki, Finland. It was created as a merger of three leading Finnish universities: the Helsinki University of Technology , the Helsinki School of Economics , and the University of Art and Design Helsinki . The close collaboration between the scientific, business and arts communities is intended to foster multi-disciplinary education and research. The Finnish government, in 2010, set out to create a university that has innovation built into its foundations, merging three institutions into one along the way, forming an entity that serves as Finland's model for an innovation university.It comprises six schools with over 19,000 students and 5,000 staff members, thus being Finland's third-largest university. The six schools of Aalto University are all renowned institutions in their respective fields. The main campus of Aalto University is located in Otaniemi, Espoo, where the engineering schools operate, with two schools currently headquartered in Helsinki: the School of Business in Töölö and the School of Arts, Design and Architecture in Arabianranta . In addition, the university operates several units outside Greater Helsinki in Mikkeli, Pori and Vaasa.Aalto university's operations showcase Finland’s bold new experiment in higher education. The Aalto Design Factory, AppCampus, ADD LAB and Aalto Ventures Program, among others, drive the university's mission for a radical shift towards multidisciplinary learning and have contributed substantially to the emergence of Helsinki as a hotbed for startups. Aaltoes, which stands for Aalto Entrepreneurship Society, is Europe’s largest student run entrepreneurship community and organises the Startup Sauna accelerator program for startups, raising more than US$36 million in funding since 2010.The university is named in honour of Alvar Aalto, a prominent Finnish architect, designer and alumnus of the former Helsinki University of Technology, who was also instrumental in designing a large part of the university's main campus in Otaniemi. Wikipedia.

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Aalto University | Date: 2015-03-13

The present disclosure relates to aqueous all-copper redox flow batteries. This battery comprises at least one first and second half-cell compartments including the first and second aqueous electrolyte solutions comprising a copper compound and supporting electrolytes and a first and second electrodes. The battery further comprises external storage tanks for the electrolytes residing outside of the half-cell compartments, and means for circulating the electrolytes to and from the half-cells. There is a separator between the first and the second half-cell, and the half-cells of this battery are configured to conduct oxidation and reduction reactions for charging and discharging the battery.

Aalto University | Date: 2017-01-04

Method for shaping a film/sheet (1), particularly for making three-dimensional shapes in it, in which case the outlines of the shape to be formed are warmed/heated (4) and the film/sheet is stretched along the heated outline, in order to cause the part of the film/sheet inside it to deviate from the plane of the surface. The heated outlines are created by, for example, directing a moving beam of thermal radiation onto it. A countersurface (9) is provided to limit the stretching and ensure that rupture does not occur. By repeating the procedure sequentially, a great variety of shapes may be created.

Suomela J.,Aalto University
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2013

A local algorithm is a distributed algorithm that runs in constant time, independently of the size of the network. Being highly scalable and fault tolerant, such algorithms are ideal in the operation of large-scale distributed systems. Furthermore, even though the model of local algorithms is very limited, in recent years we have seen many positive results for nontrivial problems. This work surveys the state-of-the-art in the field, covering impossibility results, deterministic local algorithms, randomized local algorithms, and local algorithms for geometric graphs. © 2013 ACM.

Winning against an opponent in a competitive video game can be expected to be more rewarding than losing, especially when the opponent is a fellow human player rather than a computer. We show that winning versus losing in a first-person video game activates the brain's reward circuit and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) differently depending on the type of the opponent. Participants played a competitive tank shooter game against alleged human and computer opponents while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain responses to wins and losses were contrasted by fitting an event-related model to the hemodynamic data. Stronger activation to winning was observed in ventral and dorsal striatum as well as in vmPFC. Activation in ventral striatum was associated with participants' self-ratings of pleasure. During winning, ventral striatum showed stronger functional coupling with right insula, and weaker coupling with dorsal striatum, sensorimotor pre- and postcentral gyri, and visual association cortices. The vmPFC and dorsal striatum responses were stronger to winning when the subject was playing against a human rather than a computer. These results highlight the importance of social context in the neural encoding of reward value.

Salmi J.,Aalto University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2012

Localization of objects is fast becoming a major aspect of wireless technologies, with applications in logistics, surveillance, and emergency response. Time-of-arrival (TOA) localization is ideally suited for high-precision localization of objects in particular in indoor environments, where GPS is not available. This paper considers the case where one transmitter and multiple, distributed, receivers are used to estimate the location of a passive (reflecting) object. It furthermore focuses on the situation when the transmitter and receivers can be synchronized, so that TOA (as opposed to time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA)) information can be used. We propose a novel, Two-Step estimation (TSE) algorithm for the localization of the object. We then derive the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) for TOA and show that it is an order of magnitude lower than the CRLB of TDOA in typical setups. The TSE algorithm achieves the CRLB when the TOA measurements are subject to small Gaussian-distributed errors, which is verified by analytical and simulation results. Moreover, practical measurement results show that the estimation error variance of TSE can be 33 dB lower than that of TDOA based algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

Motivation: Identifying interactions between drug compounds and target proteins has a great practical importance in the drug discovery process for known diseases. Existing databases contain very few experimentally validated drug-target interactions and formulating successful computational methods for predicting interactions remains challenging. Results: In this study, we consider four different drug-target interaction networks from humans involving enzymes, ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors. We then propose a novel Bayesian formulation that combines dimensionality reduction, matrix factorization and binary classification for predicting drug-target interaction networks using only chemical similarity between drug compounds and genomic similarity between target proteins. The novelty of our approach comes from the joint Bayesian formulation of projecting drug compounds and target proteins into a unified subspace using the similarities and estimating the interaction network in that subspace. We propose using a variational approximation in order to obtain an efficient inference scheme and give its detailed derivations. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our proposed method in three different scenarios: (i) exploratory data analysis using low-dimensional projections, (ii) predicting interactions for the out-of-sample drug compounds and (iii) predicting unknown interactions of the given network. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Tuomisto F.,Aalto University | Makkonen I.,Aalto University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

Positron annihilation spectroscopy is particularly suitable for studying vacancy-type defects in semiconductors. Combining state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods allows for detailed identification of the defects and their chemical surroundings. Also charge states and defect levels in the band gap are accessible. In this review the main experimental and theoretical analysis techniques are described. The usage of these methods is illustrated through examples in technologically important elemental and compound semiconductors. Future challenges include the analysis of noncrystalline materials and of transient defect-related phenomena. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Savin H.,Aalto University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

The nanostructuring of silicon surfaces—known as black silicon—is a promising approach to eliminate front-surface reflection in photovoltaic devices without the need for a conventional antireflection coating. This might lead to both an increase in efficiency and a reduction in the manufacturing costs of solar cells. However, all previous attempts to integrate black silicon into solar cells have resulted in cell efficiencies well below 20% due to the increased charge carrier recombination at the nanostructured surface. Here, we show that a conformal alumina film can solve the issue of surface recombination in black silicon solar cells by providing excellent chemical and electrical passivation. We demonstrate that efficiencies above 22% can be reached, even in thick interdigitated back-contacted cells, where carrier transport is very sensitive to front surface passivation. This means that the surface recombination issue has truly been solved and black silicon solar cells have real potential for industrial production. Furthermore, we show that the use of black silicon can result in a 3% increase in daily energy production when compared with a reference cell with the same efficiency, due to its better angular acceptance. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group

The objective of this paper is to study a method to achieve sub-wet bulb temperature by indirect evaporative cooling of air (without using a vapor compression machine). For this purpose, an analytical model is developed based on the effectiveness-NTU method (ε-NTU). The main idea for achieving a sub-wet bulb temperature by indirect evaporative cooling of air is by indirectly pre-cooling the working air before it enters the wet passage. It is shown that a modified analytical model for indirect evaporative coolers could be based on the ε-NTU method for sensible heat exchangers when proper adjustments are made by redefining the potential gradients, transfer coefficient, heat capacity rate parameters and assuming a linear saturation temperature-enthalpy relation of air. This modified model is used to find the performance of a regenerative indirect evaporative cooler. The model results show very good agreement with results from experimental measurements and a numerical model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pekola J.P.,Aalto University
Nature Physics | Year: 2015

Electronic circuits operating at sub-kelvin temperatures are attractive candidates for studying classical and quantum thermodynamics: their temperature can be controlled and measured locally with exquisite precision, and they allow experiments with large statistical samples. The availability and rapid development of devices such as quantum dots, single-electron boxes and superconducting qubits only enhance their appeal. But although these systems provide fertile ground for studying heat transport, entropy production and work in the context of quantum mechanics, the field remains in its infancy experimentally. Here, we review some recent experiments on quantum heat transport, fluctuation relations and implementations of Maxwell's demon, revealing the rich physics yet to be fully probed in these systems. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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