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Brescia, Italy

Della Giustina D.,A2A Reti Elettriche SpA | Pau M.,University of Cagliari | Pegoraro P.A.,University of Cagliari | Ponci F.,RWTH Aachen | Sulis S.,University of Cagliari
IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

The distribution grid is the infrastructure that transports electrical energy generated by large plants that are long distances away to the final user. A typical distribution grid consists of High-to-Medium Voltage (HV/MV) transformation centers; the MV grid; Medium-to-Low Voltage (MV/LV) transformation centers; and the LV grid, both three-phase and single-phase. Residential and commercial customers are mainly connected to the LV, while large industrial facilities are connected to the MV. © 1998-2012 IEEE. Source

Giustina D.D.,A2A Reti Elettriche SpA | Ferrari P.,University of Brescia | Flammini A.,University of Brescia | Rinaldi S.,University of Brescia | Sisinni E.,University of Brescia
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

The IEC 61850 standard allows for a structured grid automation system where critical tasks like grid protections, renewable energy sources management, synchronized measurements, and monitoring applications share the communication network. So far, the use of IEC 61850 has been mainly limited to the primary substations, but more interesting could be the coordinated actions between primary and secondary substations in order to quickly react to faults and to reduce service downtimes for final customers. Unfortunately, the communication networks between primary and secondary substations are today only partially deployed. Considering this context, the broadband power line over medium voltage grid (MV-BPL) could be a suitable solution for closing the communication gaps between substations that use IEC 61850. The main objective of this paper is to present the outcomes of the first phase of a project whose final goal is the implementation in real grids of distribution grid automation based on IEC 61850. A new and comprehensive set of experiments on a real (and in service) medium voltage grid in Italy has been designed and carried out. The practicability of IEC 61850 communication over the distribution grid is assessed comparing the time characteristics of the MV-BPL against the transfer time classes of the IEC 61850, determining which IEC 61850 services may be transported over MV-BPL. The experimental long-term analysis highlights that more than 90% of the service requests are transferred on the network with a round-trip time lower than 40 ms even in the case of four hops, a time which is compatible with the IEC 61850 fast automatic interactions on MV grid. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

Giustina D.D.,A2A Reti Elettriche SpA | Rinaldi S.,University of Brescia
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery

The business of distribution system operators is rapidly evolving as the distribution grid is hosting more distributed energy resources. Technology for monitoring, control, and protecting the grid is progressively pervading the lower segment of the network. These changes require a performing communication infrastructure to enable data exchange among the control centers of the grid. The 7th Framework Program European Project INTEGRIS proposes a hybrid infrastructure-based on broadband power line (BPL), Wi-Fi, and fiber optics (FO)-to enable services for grid management. This mix of technologies provides a balanced tradeoff between investments and benefits, meeting most of the requirements of the smart grid. This paper investigates the technologies that could be adopted and describes the experimental assessment performed in an operational environment in Italy. Using this installation, transfer time, time synchronization accuracy, dependability, and throughput are evaluated and analyzed over a long-term campaign. Results show that the FO is the best communication media, able to provide a two-way latency of 3 ms (95 percentile), whereas BPL has a two-way latency of 57 ms (95 percentile-4 hops). Those results confirm that a careful selection of the technologies is required to satisfy requirements of smart grid. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Giustina D.D.,A2A Reti Elettriche SpA | Ferrari P.,University of Brescia | Flammini A.,University of Brescia | Rinaldi S.,University of Brescia
2012 IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems, AMPS 2012 Proceedings

New needs of distribution system monitoring and automation have been raised in these years as the level of renewable energy sources penetration increases. Monitoring, protection, and synchronization applications needed by new Smart Grid systems mandate a capillary communication with primary and secondary substation, which cannot be implemented in time just with traditional media, such as Fiber Optics. Broadband Power Line over Medium Voltage (MV-BPL) grid could be a viable solution but a comprehensive characterization is still missing. The paper describes an experimental evaluation of service latency in a real MV-BPL design for the distribution grid management in Italy. The preliminary analysis states that 95% of the service requests are transferred on the network with a round-trip time lower than 120 ms even in the case of four hops. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Martini L.,RSE SpA | Bocchi M.,RSE SpA | Ascade M.,RSE SpA | Valzasina A.,RSE SpA | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity

Since 2009, Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. has been involved in the development of a resistive-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for MV applications to be installed in the A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A. distribution grid in the Milan area. The project started with simulations, design, and testing activities for a single-phase device; this first step paved the way for developing, testing, and live-grid installation at the hosting utility site of the final three-phase SFCL prototype. The result of this research activity is a resistive-type 9 kV/3.4 MVA SFCL device, based on first-generation (1G) BSCCO tapes, nowadays permanently installed as a single-feeder fault protection. This device is the first SFCL successfully installed in Italy. In this paper, we report on installation of the three-phase device and field-testing activity. The next step of the R&D activity will consist in the design of a three-phase SFCL demonstrator 9 kV/15.6 MVA to be installed at the same substation in an incoming feeder to limit the contribution of this feeder to the total short-circuit current of the network. This application is very demanding in terms of SFCL reliability and availability, but also the most interesting one for the A2A hosting utility needs. © 2002-2011 IEEE. Source

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