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Leena M.,Karunya University | Rana D.,A Unit of the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Bengaluru | Webster T.J.,King Abdulaziz University | Ramalingam M.,A Unit of the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Bengaluru | Ramalingam M.,Tohoku University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) in a shorter duration than what conventionally occurs today (over 24 h) through a novel biomimetic approach. Despite the fact that nHAp has a wide range of medical applications and mimics the inorganic phase of natural bone tissue, nHAp synthesis protocols have not been optimized for quick precipitation times to obtain biomimetic nHAp in simulated body fluid (SBF). To overcome these issues, the synthesis of "bone-like" carbonated nHAp was carried out here with optimized concentrations of calcium chloride and disodium phosphate in SBF medium using a non-stoichiometric chemical composition via a biomineralization method. The results suggest that the presently prepared nHAp was "bone-like" B-type carbonated nHAp in nature with traces of Na, Mg, K and Cl. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of nHAp in rod shapes with dimensions of 27 × 7 nm. The optimized shortest incubation time for nHAp synthesis was 3 h. Therefore, the most important finding of the present study was the elucidation that nHAp can be synthesized biomimetically after just 3 h. This can be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Obregon R.,Tohoku University | Ramon-Azcon J.,Tohoku University | Ahadian S.,Tohoku University | Shikul H.,Tohoku University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary research area that combines medicine, biology, and material science. In recent decades, microtechnology and nanotechnology have also been gradually integrated into this field and have become essential components of TE research. Tissues and complex organs in the body depend on a branched blood vessel system. One of the main objectives for TE researchers is to replicate this vessel system and obtain functional vascularized structures within engineered tissues or organs. With the help of new nanotechnology and microtechnology, significant progress has been made. Achievements include the design of nanoscale-level scaffolds with new functionalities, development of integrated and rapid nanotechnology methods for biofabrication of vascular tissues, discovery of new composite materials to direct differentiation of stem and inducible pluripotent stem cells into the vascular phenotype. Although numerous challenges to replicating vascularized tissue for clinical uses remain, the combination of these new advances has yielded new tools for producing functional vascular tissues in the near future. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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