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Coenen M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Cabello M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Umlauf S.,Schon Klinik | Ayuso-Mateos J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 39 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. Method: The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Results: Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conclusions: This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses.Implications for RehabilitationEmotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity.Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders.The effects of medication and social environment on patients daily life should be considered in all the neuropsychiatric conditions. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Cieza A.,University of Southampton | Cieza A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Cieza A.,Swiss Paraplegic Research | Anczewska M.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 39 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective To test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs), such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders. Study Design A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patientreported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency. Information from these sources was harmonized and compiled, and after feedback from external experts, a data collection protocol including PSD and determinants common across these nine disorders was developed. This protocol was implemented as an interview in a cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of persons with one of the nine brain disorders. PSDs endorsed by at least 25% of patients with a brain disorder were considered associated with the disorder. PSD were considered common across disorders if associated to 5 out of the 9 brain disorders and if among the 5 both neurological and psychiatric conditions were represented. Setting The data collection protocol with 64 PSDs and 20 determinants was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 722 persons in four specialized health care facilities in Europe. Results 57 of the PSDs and 16 of the determinants included in the protocol were found to be experienced across brain disorders. Conclusion This is the first evidence that supports the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders. This result challenges the brain disorder-specific or vertical approach in which clinical and epidemiological research about psychosocial difficulties experienced in daily life is commonly carried in neurology and psychiatry and the way in which the corresponding health care delivery is practiced in many countries of the world. © 2015 Cieza et al.

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