a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare

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Gonzalez-Duarte M.M.,University of Cádiz | Megina C.,University of Seville | Piraino S.,University of Salento | Piraino S.,a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare | Cervera J.L.,University of Cádiz
Marine Ecology | Year: 2013

Strong gradients in physico-chemical properties between abutting water masses create prominent transition zones in the marine environment. The Strait of Gibraltar forms the well defined boundary between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, and this paper examines spatial variation of hydroid assemblages in this transition zone. Although several studies highlighted the transitional character of the Strait and defined it as an ecotone, the benthic hydroid assemblages did not show differences between the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea. However, there is an asymmetrical influence of the Atlantic waters on the coastal benthic ecosystems of the Alboran Sea, which maintains a more Mediterranean character in the hydroid assemblages of the northern coast, whereas a more Atlantic character was found in the rest of the studied sites. The transition zone between Atlantic and Mediterranean benthic communities could be associated with an Atlantic Influence Zone rather than with the Strait of Gibraltar itself. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Gravili C.,University of Salento | Gravili C.,a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare | Di Camillo C.G.,Marche Polytechnic University | Piraino S.,University of Salento | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology | Year: 2013

The Mediterranean hydrozoan fauna (Siphonophora excluded) comprises 400 species; most (68%) occur in the Atlantic Ocean, 20% are endemic to the Mediterranean, 8% are of Indo-Pacific origin, and 4% are non-classifiable. There are 69 nonindigenous (NIS) species in the basin: 44% of these are casual (recorded just one or very few times), 28% established (widely recorded in the basin), 6% invasive (established NIS that are able rapidly or largely to disseminate away from the area of initial introduction, having a noticeable impact on the recipient community), and 22% questionable (of doubtful taxonomic status). Entry through the Suez Canal and range expansion through the Gibraltar Strait, often enhanced by ship traffic, appear to be the main processes for recent species introductions, but uncertainties remain for many NIS. Species additions immediately result in larger local or regional species pools, but the newcomers might impact on populations of native species, altering extinction probabilities. A more reliable evaluation of the species pool can be accomplished by adding new species when they enter the taxonomic record (i.e. the records of any taxon in all types of literature), and by removing species that have not been found for a 'reasonable' time (e.g. several decades). Of the 400 non-siphonophoran hydrozoan species known to occur in the Mediterranean Sea, positive records in the last 10 years are available for 156 species (39%), whereas records of the remaining 244 species are older than a decade: 67 species have not been recorded for 41 years, 13 for 31-40 years, 79 for 21-30 years, and 85 for 11-20 years. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Gravili C.,University of Salento | De Vito D.,a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare | Di Camillo C.G.,Marche Polytechnic University | Martell L.,University of Salento | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database. For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography. Descriptions refer to the benthic hydroid stage and, when present, also to the planktonic medusa stage. The 115 species of Hydrozoa, recorded along the Salento coastline, represent 25% of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa fauna (totaling 461 species), and nearly 3% of 3,702 world's known species covered in a recent monograph. Four species are non-indigenous, three of them with invasive behavior (Clytia hummelincki, Clytia linearis, and Eudendrium carneum), and one species now very common (Eudendrium merulum) in Salento. The complete life cycle of Clytia paulensis (Vanhöffen, 1910) is described for the first time. © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Pennati R.,University of Milan | Dell'Anna A.,University of Milan | Zega G.,University of Milan | De Bernardi F.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Marine Ecology | Year: 2013

Retinoic acid (RA) is a derivative of vitamin A known to be involved in the regulation of many developmental and physiological processes in chordates. Recently, evidence showing its presence and function in invertebrate deuterostomes and protostomes indicated the early evolutionary origin and conservation of the RA developmental machinery, with a key role also in neural differentiation. Moreover, it is known that retinoids can influence pattern specification in polyps of the hydroid Hydractinia echinata. The planula larvae of the hydrozoan Clava multicornis are characterized by a complex nervous system formed by a frontal neural plexus composed by two distinct peptidergic cell populations with antero-posterior organization: a first, anterior-most GLWamide immunoreactive (GLW-IR) population and an RFamide immunoreactive (RF-IR) cell belt just posterior to the first population. In contrast to most swimming planulae, C. multicornis larvae display a smooth gliding movement on the substrate, characterized by alternate bending of the anterior pole. We tested the effects of RA and of a RA antagonist on C. multicornis development by analyzing the nervous system organization and the photoresponsive behavior of larvae exposed to RA during their embryogenesis. After the exposure, the nervous system became completely disorganized, leading to the displacement of RFamide-IR cells. Moreover, RA-treated larvae did not exhibit the typical phototropic behavior of control specimens. Our results suggest that RA can alter the normal development of nervous elements in this hydroid species, supporting the hypothesis that the morphogenetic activity of RA predates the origin of chordates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Semprucci F.,Urbino University | Sbrocca C.,Urbino University | Baldelli G.,Urbino University | Tramontana M.,Urbino University | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2016

Artificial reefs (ARs) are the most common man-made constructions adopted to prevent coastal erosion from wave actions and currents. Despite their worldwide application in coastal management and the documented chemical and physical alterations on surrounding seabeds that they may cause, few studies have been carried out on their impact upon meiofauna. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the potential effects of ARs on the seabed using various meiofaunal descriptors such as the structure of the entire assemblage and of rare taxa, the richness, the diversity indices and the Nematode:Copepod (Ne:Co) ratio. We investigated meiofaunal assemblages of some exposed areas on the Adriatic coast that are protected by ARs and subject to different levels of anthropogenic impact. This last issue was fundamental to examining possible interactions between AR presence and riverine discharges. The results of this study showed that the most efficient meiofaunal descriptors were diversity indices and the Ne:Co ratio, and suggested that the existence of ARs along with uncontrolled riverine discharges may increase anthropogenic impacts upon coastlines. This point is crucial for the conservation and monitoring of beaches because coastal management should be focused on preventing not only coastal erosion, but also possible impacts on marine ecosystem and human health. © 2016 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Di Franco A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Di Franco A.,a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare | Calo A.,University of Murcia | Pennetta A.,University of Salento | And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

In the marine context, information about dispersal is essential for the design of networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Generally, most of the dispersal of demersal fishes is thought to be driven by the transport of eggs and larvae in currents, with the potential contribution of dispersal in later life stages relatively minimal.Using otolith chemistry analyses, we estimate dispersal patterns across a spatial scale of approximately 180. km at both propagule (i.e. eggs and larvae) and juvenile (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) stages of a Mediterranean coastal fishery species, the two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris. We detected three major natal sources of propagules replenishing local populations in the entire study area, suggesting that propagule dispersal distance extends to at least 90. km. For the juvenile stage, we detected dispersal of up to 165. km. Our work highlights the surprising and significant role of dispersal during the juvenile life stages as an important mechanism connecting populations. Such new insights are crucial for creating effective management strategies (e.g. MPAs and MPA networks) and to gain support from policymakers and stakeholders, highlighting that MPA benefits can extend well beyond MPA borders, and not only via dispersal of eggs and larvae, but also through movement by juveniles. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Salento, Marche Polytechnic University and a Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare
Type: | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database. For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography. Descriptions refer to the benthic hydroid stage and, when present, also to the planktonic medusa stage. The 115 species of Hydrozoa, recorded along the Salento coastline, represent 25% of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa fauna (totaling 461 species), and nearly 3% of 3,702 worlds known species covered in a recent monograph. Four species are non-indigenous, three of them with invasive behavior (Clytia hummelincki, Clytia linearis, and Eudendrium carneum), and one species now very common (Eudendrium merulum) in Salento. The complete life cycle of Clytia paulensis (Vanhffen, 1910) is described for the first time.

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