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Calhoun J.V.,977 Wicks Dr. | Calhoun J.V.,University of Florida
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society | Year: 2013

The creation of the book The Butterflies of North America by William H. Edwards is traced in detail. Much new information is presented, derived mostly from Edwards' extensive correspondence. It was issued from 1868 to 1897 in three series (volumes) of 42 separate parts. The first volume was published by the American Entomological Society, while the second and third volumes were published by Houghton, Mifflin & Company under several different names. The 152 hand-colored lithographic plates were drawn by five artists: Shelly W. Denton, Edward A. Ketterer, Maty Peart, Daniel Wiest, and an unidentified artist under the supervision of John Cassin. Most of the resulting prints were colored by sisters Lavinia (Lydia) Bowen and Patience D. Leslie, though many additional colorists were involved. Four plates were replaced after publication; the originals and their replacements are figured together for the first time. The first volume included a synopsis of species, which Edwards intended to revise in the second volume, but abandoned in favor of a simple list of taxa. Severe monetary constraints forced Edwards to sell his butterfly collection to help finance the third volume. Complete copies of the first and second volumes were assembled and sold for many years. Revised citations are proposed for each volume and their associated publications. New biographical information about Mary Peart is provided, including her portrait. Source


Calhoun J.V.,977 Wicks Dr. | Calhoun J.V.,University of Florida
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society | Year: 2010

Since its description Papilio hyllus Cramer, 1775 has been linked to at least five lycaenine and thecline species of butterflies. Although most authors now consider P. hyllus to represent the same Nearctic species subsequently described as Polyommatus thoe GuérinMéneville, [1832], some consider it to represent the Palearctic species described as Papilio thersamon Esper, 1784. For over diree decades the name Lycaena hyllus has been employed for the Nearctic species, but the identity of Papilio hyllus remains contentious. The original watercolor drawings of Cramer's illustrated type specimen indicate that P. hyllus is a senior subjective synonym of P. thoe. A connection between the English entomologist Dru Drury (1725-1804) and the Dutch naturalist Hans Willem (Baron) Rengers (1722-1786) suggests that the illustrated type specimen of P. hyllus was collected by Thomas James in New York. A neotype is designated to objectively define the nominal species Papuio hyllus. Source


Calhoun J.V.,977 Wicks Dr. | Calhoun J.V.,University of Florida
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society | Year: 2015

The discovery of the 1871 journal of Theodore L. Mead provides an opportunity to establish a more accurate itinerary of his exploration of Colorado that summer. The provenance of Mead's manuscripts, including this journal, is summarized. The history of Mead's expedition and the subsequent distribution of his butterfly specimens are reviewed. Despite the general belief that Mead participated in the Wheeler Survey, there is no evidence to support this claim. Information is presented on three significant localities where Mead collected butterfly type specimens: Kenosha House (figured and mapped), Turkey Creek Junction (=Bradford Junction; figured and mapped), and Twin Lakes (mapped). Based on Mead's actual whereabouts, type localities are clarified for 19 nominal taxa: Pamphila Colorado Scudder, Pamphila nevada Scudder, Hesperia dacotah W. H. Edwards, Hesperia napa W. H. Edwards, Anthocaris [sic] coloradensis H. Edwards, Colias hagenii W. H. Edwards, Argynnis helena W. H. Edwards, Argynnis meadii W. H. Edwards, Grapta hylas W H. Edwards, Melitaea eurytion Mead, Melitaea calydon Holland, Phyciodes nycteis var. drusius W. H. Edwards, Phyciodes camillus W. H. Edwards, Phyciodes emissa W. H. Edwards, Erebia rhodia W H. Edwards, Thecla ninus W. H. Edwards, Chrysophanus sirius W. H. Edwards, Lycaena daunia W. H. Edwards, and Lycaena melissa W. H. Edwards. Based on the lectotype and type locality of P. Colorado, Hesperia comma oroplata Scott should be treated as a synonym. The type locality of M. eurytion is fixed through a lectotype designation and the conceptual history of this nominal taxon is explored. Events related to the selection of the lectotype of L, melissa are reviewed in detail. Source


Calhoun J.V.,977 Wicks Dr. | Calhoun J.V.,University of Florida
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society | Year: 2011

Long thought to be based on a holotype, evidence indicates that the concept of the nominal taxon Melitaea nycteis Doubleday was actually based on four female syntypes, which were collected in Ohio in 1843 by the English naturalist David Dyson. A lectotype is designated to stabilize usage and establish a sole name-bearing type of this nominal taxon. The type locality is suggested to be the vicinity of Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio. A previously unknown portrait of David Dyson, depicting him collecting Lepidoptera, was discovered in the possession of his great-grandnephew and is reproduced for the first time. Source


Calhoun J.V.,977 Wicks Dr. | Calhoun J.V.,University of Florida
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society | Year: 2011

The description of Eresia carlota Reakirt, 1866 (currently recognized as Chlosyne gorgone carlota) was based on specimens collected in 1864 in the foothills of the Front Range, west of Denver, Colorado. A subsequent neotype designation established the type locality as Cedar Hill, Missouri. The neotype, however, is inconsistent with the phenotype of this taxon as understood by Reakirt. More important, the neotype designation was based on an erroneous interpretation of the Code and is nomenclaturally invalid. A lectorype of Eresia carlota is designated, which restores this nominal taxon to its original concept and returns the type locality to Colorado. Source

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