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Schmidt A.G.,University of Southern California | Steiner N.,University of Southern California | French M.,University of Southern California | Sass R.,9201 University City Boulevard
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing | Year: 2012

Designing hardware cores for FPGAs can quickly become a complicated task, difficult even for experienced engineers. With the addition of more sophisticated development tools and maturing high-level language-to-gates techniques, designs can be rapidly assembled; however, when the design is evaluated on the FPGA, the performance may not be what was expected. Therefore, an engineer may need to augment the design to include performance monitors to better understand the bottlenecks in the system or to aid in the debugging of the design. Unfortunately, identifying what to monitor and adding the infrastructure to retrieve the monitored data can be a challenging and time-consuming task. Our work alleviates this effort. We present the Hardware Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (HwPMI), which includes a collection of software tools and hardware cores that can be used to profile the current design, recommend and insert performance monitors directly into the HDL or netlist, and retrieve the monitored data with minimal invasiveness to the design. Three applications are used to demonstrate and evaluate HwPMI's capabilities. The results are highly encouraging as the infrastructure adds numerous capabilities while requiring minimal effort by the designer and low resource overhead to the existing design. © 2012 Andrew G. Schmidt et al.


Aday R.,Middle Tennessee State University | Farney L.,9201 University City Boulevard
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry | Year: 2014

The problem of providing mandated medical care has become commonplace as correctional systems in the United States struggle to manage unprecedented increases in its aging prison population. This study explores older incarcerated women’s perceptions of prison health care policies and their day-to-day survival experiences. Aggregate data obtained from a sample of 327 older women (mean age = 56) residing in prison facilities in five Southern states were used to identify a baseline of health conditions and needs for this vulnerable group. With an average of 4.2 chronic health conditions, frequently histories of victimization, and high rates of mental health issues, the women’s experiences of negotiating health care was particularly challenging. By incorporating the voices of older women, we expose the contradictions, dilemmas, and obstacles they experience in their attempts to obtain health care. It is clear from the personal accounts shared that, despite court mandates, penal harm practices such as delaying or denying medical treatment as well as occasional staff indifferences are common in women’s prisons. With older women having the greatest need for health care, an age- and gender-sensitive approach is recommended. © 2014, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd.


Schmidt A.G.,University of Southern California | Kritikos W.V.,9201 University City Boulevard | Gao S.,9201 University City Boulevard | Sass R.,9201 University City Boulevard
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing | Year: 2012

As the number of cores per discrete integrated circuit (IC) device grows, the importance of the network on chip (NoC) increases. However, the body of research in this area has focused on discrete IC devices alone which may or may not serve the high-performance computing community which needs to assemble many of these devices into very large scale, parallel computing machines. This paper describes an integrated on-chip/off-chip network that has been implemented on an all-FPGA computing cluster. The system supports MPI-style point-to-point messages, collectives, and other novel communication. Results include the resource utilization and performance (in latency and bandwidth). Copyright © 2012 Andrew G. Schmidt et al.


Liu Y.,9201 University City Boulevard | Her T.-H.,9201 University City Boulevard | Casperson L.W.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest | Year: 2014

We demonstrate robust continuous-wave lasing in a planar index-antiguided waveguide with a 220-μm Nd:YAG active layer. A pump-limited output of 1.5 W with a slope efficiency of 30% with respect to absorbed pump power is achieved. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Azarbayjani M.,9201 University City Boulevard
World Renewable Energy Forum, WREF 2012, Including World Renewable Energy Congress XII and Colorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conferen | Year: 2012

This study focuses on investigation of climatic based design for double skin façade system in the Mediterranean Climate. It compares the energy performance of different configuration of double skin facades vs. single skin facade during prevailing summer, winter and shoulder season. The double-skin façade is an architectural phenomenon driven by the aesthetic desire for an all-glass façade and the practical desire to have natural ventilation for improved indoor air quality in buildings. Until recently the use of double-skin facades had become more popular in many buildings in Europe. While a great deal of interest exists in learning how to integrate DSFs into our current architecture, there is a little knowledge or demonstration of how the concept might work. The primary goal of this research is to clarify the energy and ventilation performance of DSFs, so that designers can assess the value of these building concepts in meeting design goals for energy efficiency, ventilation, productivity, and sustainability. Copyright © (2012) by American Solar Energy Society.


Peller J.,9201 University City Boulevard | Farahi F.,9201 University City Boulevard | Trammell S.R.,9201 University City Boulevard
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2016

We are developing a single-pixel hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sensing that acquires spatial and spectral information simultaneously. Our spectral imaging system uses autofluorescencent emission from collagen (400 nm) and NAD(P)H (475 nm), as well as, differences in the optical reflectance spectra as diagnostics for differentiating between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our imaging system to discriminate between healthy and damaged porcine epidermal tissue. Healthy porcine epidermal tissue samples (n=11) were imaged ex vivo using our hyperspectral system. The amount of NAD(P)H emission and the reflectance properties were approximately constant across the surface of healthy tissue samples. The tissue samples were then thermally damaged using an 1850 nm thulium fiber laser and re-imaged after laser irradiation. The damaged regions were clearly visible in the hyperspectral images as the thermal damage altered the fluorescent emission of NAD(P)H and changed the scattering properties of the tissue. The extent of the damaged regions was determined based on the hyperspectral images and these estimates were compared to damage extents measured in white light images acquired with a traditional camera. The extent of damage determined via hyperspectral imaging was in good agreement with estimates based on white light imaging indicating that our system is capable of differentiating between healthy and damaged tissue. Possible applications of our single pixel hyperspectral imaging system range from real-Time determination of tumor margins during surgery to the use of this technique in the pathology lab to aid with cancer diagnosis and staging. © 2016 SPIE.


Garcia M.,9201 University City Boulevard | Pando M.A.,9201 University City Boulevard | Tempest B.,9201 University City Boulevard
ICSDC 2011: Integrating Sustainability Practices in the Construction Industry - Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Construction 2011 | Year: 2012

Tire derived aggregates (TDA) offer potential environmental, technical, and economical benefits for retaining wall applications. For example, when compared to natural soils, TDA materials offer the advantage of reduced lateral pressures and settlement due to smaller unit weight, and potentially higher drainage capacity. This paper presents a technical and economical assessment of TDA materials for retaining wall backfills. The technical assessment includes results on model retaining wall tests and also from centrifuge tests to assess the lateral pressures generated by TDA materials. The lateral pressures are compared to tests using conventional mineral soil backfills. The test results show TDA backfills generate lower lateral pressures for at-rest conditions and for active conditions. The lower lateral pressures, coupled with lower unit weights translate into substantially lower retaining wall costs due to savings from smaller wall and footing dimensions, and less steel reinforcement quantities associated with the lower loading demand. © 2012 ASCE.


Shipley A.E.,9201 University City Boulevard | Trammell S.R.,9201 University City Boulevard
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2015

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most pancreatic cancer patients will die within the first year of diagnosis, and just 6% will survive five years. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure for pancreatic cancer patients. Accurately identifying the tumors margins in realtime is a significant difficulty during pancreatic cancer surgery and contributes to the low 5-year survival rate. We are developing a hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sampling for real-time tumor margin detection to facilitate more effective removal of diseased tissue and result in better patient outcomes. Recent research has shown that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue and will likely become an important minimally invasive diagnostic tool for a range of diseases. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about tissue morphology, while laser-induced autofluorescence spectra give accurate information about the content and molecular structure of the emitting tissue. We are developing a spectral imaging system that targets emission from collagen and NAD(P)H as diagnostics for differentiating healthy and diseased pancreatic tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our camera system to acquire hyperspectral images and its potential application for imaging autofluorescent emission from pancreatic tissue. © 2015 SPIE.


Morse E.P.,9201 University City Boulevard | Srinivasan V.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture | Year: 2013

Size is a fundamental descriptor of objects-it allows us to quantify "how big" objects are and to compare and classify objects based on this notion. In the world of International Organization for Standardization Geometrical Product Specification and Verification, size is defined much more narrowly: it is restricted to features of size, and the methods of inducing size values from an actual workpiece are strictly controlled. The release of ISO 14405-1:2010 has introduced a rich new set of size specification modifiers, which includes two-point and spherical local sizes, least squares, maximum inscribed and minimum circumscribed associations, as well as calculated diameters (inferred from the circumference, area, or volume of the feature of interest). Further modifiers allow the specification of statistics of local size measurements, such as maximum, minimum, range, average, and others. This article will present "size" as a fundamental engineering notion from several viewpoints and trace its evolution in engineering drawings. It will then discuss the implications of the use of the recently standardized size modifiers in engineering design and investigate the issues that may arise in the application and interpretation of these extensions to size. © IMechE 2012.


Morse E.,9201 University City Boulevard | Peng Y.,9201 University City Boulevard | Srinivasan V.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Shakarji C.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The recent release of ISO 14405-1 has provided designers with a richer set of specification tools for the size of part features, so that various functional requirements can be captured with greater fidelity. However, these tools also bring new challenges and pitfalls to an inspector using a coordinate metrology system. A sampling strategy that might have worked well in the past could lead to erroneous results that go undetected when used to evaluate these new specifications. In this paper we investigate how measurement strategies for sampled coordinate metrology systems influence different algorithms for the evaluation of these new specifications. Of particular interest are those specifications where the order statistics of feature cross-sections are required. Here the inspector must decide not only how many points are required for an individual cross-section, but the number and spacing of cross-sections measured on the feature. The results of these decisions are compared with an analytic estimate of the 'true value' of the measurand specified using this new standard. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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