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Folayan M.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Brown B.,900 University Ave | Haire B.,University of New South Wales | Yakubu A.,National Health Research Ethics Committee | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: The current Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in history. As of February 18th 2015, 23,258 cases of EVD have been cumulatively reported from Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States of America resulting in more than 9,000 deaths. It is therefore exigent to develop prevention and treatment therapies for EVD. Discussion: Several new EVD treatments are in clinical development at this time. Based on lessons learned, four critical processes need to be implemented before clinical trials begin. First, all global EVD research need to be coordinated to promote data sharing and synergistic overlap, while reducing unnecessary duplication of efforts. The World Health Organization is well-placed to undertake such an endeavor. Second, governments of affected nations where trials are being proposed need to lead discussions regarding immediate access to any proven medications for epidemics. Also, governments need to leverage international resources to support and expand existing national expertise to jointly conduct high-caliber clinical research; and resources must be used to enhance local technical skills and expand existing personnel. Third, ethics committees must review protocols, monitor the research process, and work closely with research scientists to insure the ethical integrity of research throughout the trials. Fourth, community advisory boards (CAB) need to be formed, linked with existing community leadership structures and organized in conjunction with trial implementation. These community structures should work together with ethics committees to facilitate the study design, informed consent process, and study implementation. Summary: We must facilitate communication and mutual understanding between trial communities and research teams, and promote positive collaborations between all stakeholders engaged in EVD research. The community engagement process for EVD research is crucial to address myths and misconceptions, and to promote study volunteers' understanding of the research details. The collaboration between all stakeholders is crucial for continued long term partnership to address EVD outbreak and none of the stakeholders should be left behind in ongoing efforts to develop EVD therapies. © 2015 Folayan et al.

Mordecai E.A.,Stanford University | Jaramillo A.G.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Ashford J.E.,900 University Ave | Hechinger R.F.,University of California at San Diego | Lafferty K.D.,U.S. Geological Survey
Ecology | Year: 2016

Competition - colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition- colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition - colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition - colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition - colonization tradeoff occurs. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

Makinde O.A.,Viable Knowledge Masters | Makinde O.O.,University of Lagos | Olaleye O.,Lagoon Hospitals Ikeja | Brown B.,900 University Ave | Odimegwu C.O.,University of Witwatersrand
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2016

The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd.

Arab S.,900 University Ave | Lake R.,900 University Ave
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present the band gap reduction effect of sulfur doping on TiO2 in anatase phase. This study is based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). For these calculations, several types of supercells consisting of 48 atoms in anatase phase are used to study the optoelectronic properties and band gap energy of sulfur-doped TiO2. The band gap reduction effect of sulfur doping as a function of concentration is also studied here. The most stable substitution site for sulfur is predicted based on theoretical calculations. Based on the previous experimental results and the recent theoretical calculations in this paper, it is proven that sulfur doping is a promising approach for band gap reduction of TiO2 for a wide variety of energy-based applications. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Carfi D.,900 University Ave | Carfi D.,University of California at Riverside | Schiliro D.,Messina University | Schiliro D.,University of Milan
AAPP Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali | Year: 2012

In the present work we propose an original analytical model of coopetitive game. We shall apply this analytical model of coopetition (based on normal form game theory) to the Greek crisis, while conceiving this game theory model at a macro level. We construct two realizations of such model, trying to represent possible realistic macroeconomic scenarios of the Germany-Greek strategic interaction. We shall suggest - after a deep and complete study of the two samples - feasible transferable utility solutions in a properly coopetitive perspective for the divergent interests which drive the economic policies in the euro area. © 2012 by the Author(s).

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