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Shreveport, LA, United States

Javanmard S.H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mohammad Saadatnia M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Vida Homayouni V.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mahin Nikoogoftar M.,University of Tehran | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2012

Disruption of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) due to endothelial cell (EC) injury is an essential step in formation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We investigated the role of endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis in the pathophysiology of MS, studying the therapeutic effect of IFN-beta-1b against MS sera-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with sera from patients with active MS (in relapse), MS in remission, or sera from healthy volunteers (each n = 5). Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Effects of IFN-beta-1b on EC apoptosis were tested at increasing doses (10, 100, and1000 U/ml). Nitrite (NO2--) levels were determined in culture supernatants. EC apoptosis was increased by sera from exacerbating MS patients, but not remission, compared to healthy individuals (p<0.001). Effects were blocked by IFN-beta-1b at 10U/ml (p<0.05), but not higher doses, and was associated with increased NO/NO2- production (p<0.05). EC apoptosis leading to disruption of the BBB may play a role in MS etiology and represents a novel therapeutic mechanism of action for IFN-beta-1b in MS therapy. Source


Zhou H.,501 Kings Highway | Huang S.,501 Kings Highway | Huang S.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2010

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has attracted substantial attention because of its involvement in a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes and obesity. Current knowledge indicates that mTOR functions as two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 phosphorylates p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival by integrating hormones, growth factors, nutrients, stressors and energy signals. In contrast, mTORC2 is insensitive to nutrients or energy conditions. However, in response to hormones or growth factors, mTORC2 phosphorylates Akt, and regulates actin cytoskeleton and cell survival. These findings not only reveal the crucial role of mTOR in physiology and pathology, but also reflect the complexity of the mTOR signaling network. In this review, we discuss the advances in studies of the mTOR complexes, including the interacting proteins, the upstream regulators and the downstream effectors of mTOR complexes, as well as their implication in certain human diseases. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Veluswamy H.,501 Kings Highway | Suryawala K.,LSUHSC S Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Sheth A.,LSUHSC S Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Wells S.,501 Kings Highway | And 14 more authors.
BMC Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Background: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) remain significant health problems in the US and worldwide. IBD is most often associated with eastern European ancestry, and is less frequently reported in other populations of African origin e.g. African Americans ('AAs'). Whether AAs represent an important population with IBD in the US remains unclear since few studies have investigated IBD in communities with a majority representation of AA patients. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) is a tertiary care medical center, with a patient base composed of 58% AA and 39% Caucasian (W), ideal for evaluating racial (AA vs. W) as well and gender (M vs. F) influences on IBD.Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 951 visits to LSUHSC-S for IBD (between 2000 to 2008) using non-identified patient information based on ICD-9 medical record coding (Crohn's disease 'CD'-555.0- 555.9 and ulcerative colitis 'UC'-556.0-556.9).Results: Overall, there were more cases of CD seen than UC. UC and CD affected similar ratios of AA and Caucasian males (M) and females (F) with a rank order of WF > WM > AAF > AAM. Interestingly, in CD, we found that annual visits per person was the highest in AA M (10.7 ± 1.7); significantly higher (*; -p < 0.05) than in WM (6.3 ± 1.0). Further, in CD, the female to male (F: M) ratio in AA was significantly higher (*;- p < 0.05) (1.9 ± 0.2) than in Caucasians (F:M = 1.3 ± 0.1) suggesting a female dominance in AACD; no differences were seen in UC F: M ratios.Conclusion: Although Caucasians still represent the greatest fraction of IBD (~64%), AAs with IBD made up >1/3 (36.4%) of annual IBD cases from 2000-2008 at LSUHSC-S. Further studies on genetic and environments risks for IBD risk in AAs are needed to understand differences in presentation and progression in AAs and other 'non-traditional' populations. © 2010 Veluswamy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Alrajab S.,Critical Care and Sleep Medicine | Alrajab S.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Youssef A.M.,501 Kings Highway | Youssef A.M.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2013

Introduction: Ultrasonography is being increasingly utilized in acute care settings with expanding applications. Pneumothorax evaluation by ultrasonography is a fast, safe, easy and inexpensive alternative to chest radiographs. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the current literature comparing ultrasonography and chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods: We searched English-language articles in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library dealing with both ultrasonography and chest radiography for diagnosis of pneumothorax. In eligible studies that met strict inclusion criteria, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural ultrasonography in comparison with chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Results: We reviewed 601 articles and selected 25 original research articles for detailed review. Only 13 articles met all of our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. One study used lung sliding sign alone, 12 studies used lung sliding and comet tail signs, and 6 studies searched for lung point in addition to the other two signs. Ultrasonography had a pooled sensitivity of 78.6% (95% CI, 68.1 to 98.1) and a specificity of 98.4% (95% CI, 97.3 to 99.5). Chest radiography had a pooled sensitivity of 39.8% (95% CI, 29.4 to 50.3) and a specificity of 99.3% (95% CI, 98.4 to 100). Our meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicate that consecutive sampling of patients compared to convenience sampling provided higher sensitivity results for both ultrasonography and chest radiography. Consecutive versus nonconsecutive sampling and trauma versus nontrauma settings were significant sources of heterogeneity. In addition, subgroup analysis showed significant variations related to operator and type of probe used. Conclusions: Our study indicates that ultrasonography is more accurate than chest radiography for detection of pneumothorax. The results support the previous investigations in this field, add new valuable information obtained from subgroup analysis, and provide accurate estimates for the performance parameters of both bedside ultrasonography and chest radiography for pneumothorax evaluation. © 2013 Alrajab et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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