Hardy R.,885 West Kathleen Avenue |
Paragamian V.L.,885 West Kathleen Avenue |
Paragamian V.L.,Tall United
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2013
In Idaho, Burbot Lota lota are endemic only to the Kootenai River, where they once provided an important winter fishery to the indigenous people and European settlers. This fishery and that of Kootenay Lake in British Columbia may have been the most robust Burbot fisheries in North America. However, the fishery in Idaho rapidly declined after the construction of Libby Dam by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1972, and it closed in 1992. Concomitant to the collapse in Idaho was the collapse of the Burbot fishery in Kootenay Lake and the Kootenay River. The operation of Libby Dam for hydroelectric power generation and flood control created major changes in the river's nutrient concentration, temperature, and seasonal discharge, particularly during the winter when Burbot spawn. Libby Dam operations were implicated as the major limiting factor to Burbot recruitment, giving rise to higher winter temperatures and widely fluctuating flows. Because the Burbot in the Kootenai River are at risk of demographic extinction, a conservation strategy was prepared to outline the measures necessary to rehabilitate the Burbot population to a self-sustaining level. The strategy indicated that operational discharge changes at Libby Dam are required during winter to provide suitable temperature and discharge conditions for Burbot migration and spawning. Studies recommend that the discharge at Bonners Ferry average 176 m3/s for a minimum of 90 d (mid-November through mid-February). Furthermore, preferred Burbot water temperatures of about 6°C are necessary for migration and cooler temperatures of 1-4°C for spawning. With each passing year, Burbot stock limitations increasingly constrain rehabilitation. Thus, coordination of intensive culture, extensive rearing, and pen rearing among the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, the University of Idaho's Aquatic Research Institute, and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game is important for restoration. Received September 4, 2012; accepted March 25, 2013. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Ausband D.E.,885 West Kathleen Avenue
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2016
Regulated harvest is a relatively new phenomenon for gray wolves (Canis lupus) in the contiguous United States. Most studies of wolf harvest have been conducted in northern latitudes where wolf populations are large and human densities are low. Insights from wolf harvest in northern North America may not accurately describe wolf harvest in the lower 48 states. I assessed the efficacy of the recently (2009, 2011–2014) reinstated wolf harvest in Idaho, USA, to test whether it was selective for certain characteristics of individual wolves. I predicted that males and females would be harvested at similar rates, pups would be more common in trap than rifle harvest, most harvest would be from trapping, and harvest effort would not decline over time. Additionally, I predicted that black wolves would be selected as trophies and more frequent in rifle than trap harvest. Male wolves were more vulnerable to rifle harvest than females, pups were not more vulnerable to trapping, trapping did not comprise most of the harvest, and effort did not appear to change over time. Lastly, black wolves were not effectively targeted as trophies. I recommend continued monitoring of wolf harvest to further test harvest-related predictions that provide insights specific to wolves and ecological systems of the conterminous United States. © 2016 The Wildlife Society. © The Wildlife Society, 2016
Whitlock S.L.,University of Idaho |
Quist M.C.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Dux A.M.,885 West Kathleen Avenue
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2014
Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.Received January 7, 2014; accepted May 28, 2014. © 2014, American Fisheries Society 2014.
Ng E.L.,University of Idaho |
Fredericks J.P.,885 West Kathleen Avenue |
Quist M.C.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management | Year: 2015
Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10-12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release-and deep-releasetreated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured. © Citation of the source, as given above, is requested.