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Chang K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang K.,National Taiwan University | Chi W.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Gung Y.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2011

Earthquake source parameters are important for earthquake studies and seismic hazard assessment. Moment tensors are among the most important earthquake source parameters, and are now routinely derived using modern broadband seismic networks around the world. Similar waveform inversion techniques can also apply to other available data, including strong-motion seismograms. Strong-motion waveforms are also broadband, and recorded in many regions since the 1980s. Thus, strong-motion data can be used to augment moment tensor catalogs with a much larger dataset than that available from the high-gain, broadband seismic networks. However, a systematic comparison between the moment tensors derived from strong motion waveforms and high-gain broadband waveforms has not been available. In this study, we inverted the source mechanisms of Taiwan earthquakes between 1993 and 2009 by using the regional moment tensor inversion method using digital data from several hundred stations in the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP). By testing different velocity models and filter passbands, we were able to successfully derive moment tensor solutions for 107 earthquakes of Mw>=4.8. The solutions for large events agree well with other available moment tensor catalogs derived from local and global broadband networks. However, for Mw=5.0 or smaller events, we consistently over estimated the moment magnitudes by 0.5 to 1.0. We have tested accelerograms, and velocity waveforms integrated from accelerograms for the inversions, and found the results are similar. In addition, we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Meishan Taiwan which was the site of a very damaging earthquake a century ago, and found that the structures were dominated by events with complex right-lateral strike-slip faulting during the recent decade. The procedures developed from this study may be applied to other strong-motion datasets to compliment or fill gaps in catalogs from regional broadband networks and teleseismic networks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kendall L.M.,University of Memphis | Langston C.A.,University of Memphis | Lee W.H.K.,862 Richardson Court | Lin C.J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu C.C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Journal of Seismology | Year: 2012

Two large explosions were recorded by a dense array of strong-motion accelerometers and rotational seismometers in northeastern Taiwan associated with a Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research long-range refraction experiment. The objective of this experiment was to test the response of the experimental eentec rotational seismometers against calculated array rotations. Computed array rotation rates are seen to have little variation across the array, but point rotation rate measurements obtained from individual rotational seismometers show significant deviations with each other and with the array rotation rates in the ranges of 3-5 Hz and, especially, 3-50 Hz. A cross-correlation method was used to compare array-computed rotation rates and point rotation rate measurements in the frequency band of 3-5 Hz with the result that the absolute value of the normalized maximum correlation coefficient for each station set varied from 0. 45 to 0. 97 with an average of 0. 84. Amplitude differences of the point rotation rate measurements are seen to be factors of 0. 2 to 1. 8 times the array rotations as well. It is not likely that the differences seen in the point and array-computed rotation rates are due to nonlinear or heterogeneous site conditions under each array element since these effects should also be seen in the acceleration data used to determine rotation rate. A rigorous method for accurately calibrating rotation rate instruments is needed to understand their response in the field. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kanamori H.,California Institute of Technology | Rivera L.,Institute Of Physique Du Globe Of Strasbourg | Lee W.H.K.,862 Richardson Court
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

History of instrumental seismology is short. Seismograms are available only for a little more than 100 years; high-quality seismograms are available only for the last 50 years and the seismological database is very limited in time. To extend the database, seismograms of old events are of vital importance. Many unusual earthquakes are known to have occurred, but their seismological characteristics are poorly known. The 1907 Sumatra earthquake is one of them (1907 January 4, M= 7.6). Gutenberg and Richter located this event in the outer-rise area of the Sunda arc. This earthquake is known to be anomalous because of its extensive tsunami, which is disproportionate of its magnitude. The tsunami affected the coastal areas over 950 km along the Sumatran coast. We investigated this earthquake using the historical seismograms we could collect from several seismological observatories. We examined the P-wave arrival times listed in the Strassburg Bulletin (1912) and other station bulletins. The scatter of the Observed-Computed traveltime residuals ranges from-30 to 30 s, too large to locate the event accurately. The uncertainty of the epicentre estimated from an S-P grid-search relocation study is at least 1° (110 km). We interpreted the Omori seismograms from Osaka, Mizusawa and Tokyo, and the Wiechert seismograms from Göttingen and Uppsala by comparing them with the seismograms simulated from modern broad-band seismograms of the 2002, 2008 and two 2010 Sumatra earthquakes which occurred near the 1907 earthquake. From the amplitude of Rayleigh waves recorded on the Omori seismograms we conclude that the magnitude of the 1907 earthquake at about 30 to 40 s is about 7.8 (i.e. 7.5 to 8.0). The SH waveforms recorded on the Göttingen and Uppsala seismograms suggest that the 1907 earthquake is a thrust earthquake at a shallow depth around 30 km. The most likely scenario is that the 1907 earthquake initiated on the subduction interface, and slowly ruptured up-dip into the shallow sediments and caused the extensive tsunami. Although their quantity and quality are limited, historical seismograms provide key quantitative information about old events that cannot be obtained otherwise. This underscores the importance of preserving historical seismograms. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Di Giacomo D.,International Seismological Center | Harris J.,International Seismological Center | Villasenor A.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Storchak D.A.,International Seismological Center | And 2 more authors.
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2014

In order to produce a new global reference earthquake catalogue based on instrumental data covering the last 100+. years of global earthquakes, we collected, digitized and processed an unprecedented amount of printed early instrumental seismological bulletins with fundamental parametric data for relocating and reassessing the magnitude of earthquakes that occurred in the period between 1904 and 1970. This effort was necessary in order to produce an earthquake catalogue with locations and magnitudes as homogeneous as possible. The parametric data obtained and processed during this work fills a large gap in electronic bulletin data availability. This new dataset complements the data publicly available in the International Seismological Centre (ISC) Bulletin starting in 1964. With respect to the amplitude-period data necessary to re-compute magnitude, we searched through the global collection of printed bulletins stored at the ISC and entered relevant station parametric data into the database. As a result, over 110,000 surface and body-wave amplitude-period pairs for re-computing standard magnitudes MS and mb were added to the ISC database. To facilitate earthquake relocation, different sources have been used to retrieve body-wave arrival times. These were entered into the database using optical character recognition methods (International Seismological Summary, 1918-1959) or manually (e.g., British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1913-1917). In total, ~1,000,000 phase arrival times were added to the ISC database for large earthquakes that occurred in the time interval 1904-1970. The selection of earthquakes for which data was added depends on time period and magnitude: for the early years of last century (until 1917) only very large earthquakes were selected for processing ( M ≥. 7.5), whereas in the periods 1918-1959 and 1960-2009 the magnitude thresholds are 6.25 and 5.5, respectively. Such a selection was mainly dictated by limitations in time and funding. Although the newly available parametric data is only a subset of the station data available in the printed bulletins, its electronic availability will be important for any future study of earthquakes that occurred during the early instrumental period. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Storchak D.A.,International Seismological Center | Di Giacomo D.,International Seismological Center | Engdahl E.R.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Harris J.,International Seismological Center | And 4 more authors.
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2015

In this introductory article we give a general description of the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009). We also provide the background for four further articles that describe the effort in collecting and digitizing parametric earthquake bulletin data as well as the methodologies developed to compute homogeneous earthquake parameters. The result of the two and a half year project is a catalogue of approximately 20,000 large earthquakes covering 110. years with hypocentres and uncertainties computed using the same technique and velocity model. We show that the overall homogeneity of the main earthquake parameters in the catalogue was achieved despite changes in instrumentation and routine measurement practices concurrent with developments in instrumental seismology from almost a ground level to its current state.For each earthquake, MW magnitude values and uncertainties were computed either based on available estimates of seismic moment or using new empirical relationships between MW., MS and mb. Further important results of this project include the electronic availability of a considerable volume of seismic wave arrival time and amplitude measurements from early instrumental printed station bulletins. These newly recovered amplitude measurements provided a basis for computation of many previously unavailable MS magnitudes with uncertainties.In this article we describe why such a catalogue is required for a comprehensive assessment of global and regional seismic hazard. We also describe other potential uses of the catalogue in many other fields of Earth Sciences. We discuss the catalogue availability and lay out the plans of further development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lee W.H.K.,862 Richardson Court | Engdahl E.R.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors | Year: 2015

Moment magnitude (MW) determinations from the online GCMT Catalogue of seismic moment tensor solutions (GCMT Catalog, 2011) have provided the bulk of MW values in the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Reference Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009) for almost all moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring after 1975. This paper describes an effort to determine MW of large earthquakes that occurred prior to the start of the digital seismograph era, based on credible assessments of thousands of seismic moment (M0) values published in the scientific literature by hundreds of individual authors. MW computed from the published M0 values (for a time period more than twice that of the digital era) are preferable to proxy MW values, especially for earthquakes with MW greater than about 8.5, for which MS is known to be underestimated or "saturated".After examining 1,123 papers, we compile a database of seismic moments and related information for 1,003 earthquakes with published M0 values, of which 967 were included in the ISC-GEM Catalogue. The remaining 36 earthquakes were not included in the Catalogue due to difficulties in their relocation because of inadequate arrival time information. However, 5 of these earthquakes with bibliographic M0 (and thus MW) are included in the Catalogue's Appendix. A search for reliable seismic moments was not successful for earthquakes prior to 1904. For each of the 967 earthquakes a "preferred" seismic moment value (if there is more than one) was selected and its uncertainty was estimated according to the data and method used.We used the IASPEI formula (IASPEI, 2005) to compute direct moment magnitudes (MW[M0]) based on the seismic moments (M0), and assigned their errors based on the uncertainties of M0. From 1900 to 1979, there are 129 great or near great earthquakes (MW ≥7.75) - the bibliographic search provided direct MW values for 86 of these events (or 67%), the GCMT Catalog provided direct MW values for 8 events (or 6%), and the remaining 35 (or 27%) earthquakes have empirically determined proxy MW estimates. An electronic supplementary file is included with this paper in order to provide our M0/MW catalogue of earthquakes (1904-1978) from the published literature, and a reference list of the 1,123 papers that we examined. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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