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Nebraska City, NE, United States

Arrick D.M.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Mayhan W.G.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center
Microcirculation | Year: 2010

Objective: Endothelin-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular-related diseases, including diabetes. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of endothelin-1 receptors (ETA) in impaired responses of cerebral (pial) arterioles in type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: We measured responses of cerebral arterioles in non-diabetic rats to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent (ADP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-dependent (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid [NMDA]) and NOS-independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and during application of BQ-123, an ET A receptor antagonist. In addition, we harvested brain tissue from non-diabetic and diabetic rats to measure the production of superoxide anion under basal conditions and during inhibition of ETA receptors. Results: We found that diabetes specifically impaired eNOS- and nNOS-dependent reactivity of cerebral arterioles, but did not alter NOS-independent vasodilation. In addition, while BQ-123 did not alter responses in non-diabetic rats, BQ-123 restored impaired eNOS- and nNOS-dependent vasodilation in diabetic rats. Further, superoxide production was higher in brain tissue from diabetic rats compared with non-diabetic rats under basal conditions and BQ-123 decreased basal production of superoxide in diabetic rats. Conclusion: We suggest that activation of ETA receptors during type-1 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in impaired eNOS- and nNOS-dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Wen D.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Cornelius R.J.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Rivero-Hernandez D.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Yuan Y.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

The large-conductance, calcium-activated BK-α/β4 potassium channel, localized to the intercalated cells of the distal nephron, mediates potassium secretion during high-potassium, alkaline diets. Here we determine whether BK-α/β4-mediated potassium transport is dependent on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium reabsorption. We maximized sodium-potassium exchange in the distal nephron by feeding mice a low-sodium, high-potassium diet. Wild-type and BK-β4 knockout mice were maintained on a low-sodium, high-potassium, alkaline diet or a low-sodium, high-potassium, acidic diet for 7-10 days. Wild-type mice maintained potassium homeostasis on the alkaline, but not acid, diet. BK-β4 knockout mice could not maintain potassium homeostasis on either diet. During the last 12 h of diet, wild-type mice on either a regular, alkaline, or an acid diet, or knockout mice on an alkaline diet, were administered amiloride (an ENaC inhibitor). Amiloride enhanced sodium excretion in all wild-type and knockout groups to similar values; however, amiloride diminished potassium excretion by 59% in wild-type but only by 33% in knockout mice on an alkaline diet. Similarly, amiloride decreased the trans-tubular potassium gradient by 68% in wild-type but only by 42% in knockout mice on an alkaline diet. Amiloride treatment equally enhanced sodium excretion and diminished potassium secretion in knockout mice on an alkaline diet and wild-type mice on an acid diet. Thus, the enhanced effect of amiloride on potassium secretion in wild-type compared to knockout mice on the alkaline diet clarify a BK- α/β4-mediated potassium secretory pathway in intercalated cells driven by ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption linked to bicarbonate secretion. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.

Mitra A.K.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Gao L.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Zucker I.H.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2010

It has been clearly established that increased circulating angiotensin II (ANG II) with concurrent upregulation of brain and peripheral ANG II type 1 receptors (AT1R) are important mediators in the pathophysiology of several diseases characterized by sympatho-excitation. In an effort to further understand the regulation of AT1R expression in neurons, we determined the role of sequential activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Ets-like protein 1 (Elk-1) in AT 1R upregulation. We used CATH.a neurons as our neuronal cell model. Cells were treated with ANG II (100 nM) over a preset time course. Following ANG II activation, there was a temporal increase in the p65 subunit of NF-κB that was observed at 30 min, peaked at 1 h, and was sustained up to 24 h. There was a concomitant decrease of IκB and increased IκK expression. We also observed an increase in AT1R expression which followed the temporal increase of NF-κB. The activation of NF-κB was blocked by using the inhibitors parthenolide or p65 small interfering RNA (siRNA) which both led to a decrease in AT1R expression. The expression of Elk-1 was upregulated over a time period following ANG II activation and was decreased following NF-κB inhibition. p65-DNA binding was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and it was shown that there was a time-dependent increased binding that was inhibited by means of parthenolide pretreatment or siRNA-mediated p65 gene silencing. Therefore, our results suggest a combined role for the transcription factors NF-κB and Elk-1 in the upregulation of AT1R in the CATH.a cell neuronal model. These data imply a positive feedback mechanism that may impact neuronal discharge sensitivity in response to ANG II. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Holtzclaw J.D.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Liu L.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Grimm P.R.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center | Sansom S.C.,85850 Nebraska Medical Center
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2010

Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are expressed in principal cells (PC) and intercalated cells (IC) in mammalian nephrons as BK-α/β1 and BK-α/β4, respectively. IC, which protrude into the lumens of tubules, express substantially more BK than PC despite lacking sufficient Na-K-ATPase to support K secretion. We previously showed in mice that IC exhibit size reduction when experiencing high distal flows induced by a high-K diet. We therefore tested the hypothesis that BK-α/β4 are regulators of IC volume via a shear stress (τ)-induced, calcium-dependent mechanism, resulting in a reduction in intracellular K content. We determined by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis that C11-Madin-Darby canine kidney cells contained a predominance of BK-α/β4. To determine the role of BK-α/β4 in τ-induced volume reduction, we exposed C11 cells to τ and measured K efflux by flame photometry and cell volume by calcein staining, which changes inversely to cell volume. With 10 dynes/cm2, calcein intensity significantly increased 39% and monovalent cationic content decreased significantly by 37% compared with static conditions. Furthermore, the shear-induced K loss from C11 was abolished by the reduction of extracellular calcium, addition of 5 mM TEA, or BK-β4 small interfering (si) RNA, but not by addition of nontarget siRNA. These results show that BK-α/β4 plays a role in shear-induced K loss from IC, suggesting that BK-α/β4 regulate IC volume during high-flow conditions. Furthermore, these results support the use of C11 cells as in vitro models for studying BK-related functions in IC of the kidney. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

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