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Los Alamitos, CA, United States

Shelly T.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kurashima R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Nishimoto J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Diaz A.,35 E. Discovery Lane | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2011

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important agricultural pests of the Pacific region. Detection and control of these species rely largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants (parapheromones), namely methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis and cue lure for B. cucurbitae. Presently, these lures (plus naled, an insecticide) are applied in liquid form, although this procedure is time-consuming, and naled as well as methyl eugenol may pose human health risks. Recently, a solid formulation (termed a wafer) has been developed that contains both male lures (plus DDVP, an insecticide), and here we present data from field tests in California and Hawaii that compare the effectiveness of liquid versus solid formulations of the lures in capturing marked, released males of these two Bactrocera species. For both species and in both California and Hawaii, traps baited with the solid formulation of the male lure captured similar or significantly more released flies than the liquid formulation for both fresh and aged baits. Traps in Hawaii also captured wild (unmarked) males of both B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae, and the results obtained for wild flies were similar to those recorded for released flies for both species. Collectively, the results presented suggest that the solid dispenser of the male lures constitutes a reliable substitute for the liquid formulation in detecting incipient Bactrocera outbreaks. © 2011.

Shelly T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Nishimoto J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Diaz A.,35 E. Discovery Lane | Leathers J.,802 Constitution Ave. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

The genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes ≈70 polyphagous species that are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops. Most Bactrocera species have limited geographic distributions, but several species are invasive, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect infestations. In the United States, California maintains ≈25,000 traps (baited with male lures) specifically for Bactrocera detection distributed over an area of ≈6,400 km2 (2,500 miles2) in the Los Angeles area. Although prior studies have used male lures to describe movement of Bactrocera males, they do not explicitly relate capture probability with fly distance from lure-baited traps; consequently, they do not address the relative effectiveness of male lures in detecting incipient populations of Bactrocera species. The objective of this study was to measure the distance-dependent capture probability of marked, released males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (methyl eugenol- and cue lure-responding species, respectively) within the detection trapping grid operating in southern California. These data were then used to compute simple probability estimates for detecting populations of different sizes of the two species. Methyl eugenol was the more powerful attractant, and based on the markrecapture data, we estimated that B. dorsalis populations with as few as ≈50 males would always (>99.9%) be detected using the current trap density of five methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.6 km2 (1 mile2). By contrast, we estimated that certain detection of B. cucurbitae populations would not occur until these contained ≈350 males. The implications of the results for the California trapping system are discussed, and the findings are compared with mark-releasere-capture data obtained for the same two species in Hawaii.

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