Godoy S.E.,University of New Mexico |
Ramirez D.A.,801 University Blvd Se |
Myers S.A.,801 University Blvd Se |
Von Winckel G.,801 University Blvd Se |
And 5 more authors.
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2015
Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zarkesh-Ha P.,University of New Mexico |
Edwards J.,University of New Mexico |
Szauter P.,801 University Blvd Se
IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference: Engineering for Healthy Minds and Able Bodies, BioCAS 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015
In this paper a novel Avalanche Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (A-ISFET) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that a similar model for impact ionization in avalanche photodiodes is also applicable for A-ISFETs. To demonstrate the benefit of A-ISFETs, a test chip with ∼35,000 arrays of A-ISFETs is designed and fabricated using a standard 0.25μm CMOS process from TSMC. The transconductance of the fabricated A-ISFET is measured for various Vgs and Vds, to optimize the bias point for maximum sensitivity in avalanche mode. A multiplication gain of ∼6.0 was experimentally achieved. Using the optimum bias points, the arrays of A-ISFETs are also tested with sample solutions to demonstrate the increase in sensitivity due to multiplication gain. © 2015 IEEE.