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Browne K.M.,Cork University Hospital | Murphy O.,College Road | Clover A.J.P.,Cork University Hospital
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2014

This is one of a series of occasional articles that highlight areas of practice where management lacks convincing supporting evidence. The series adviser is David Tovey, editor in chief, the Cochrane Library. To suggest a topic for this series, please email us at uncertainties@bmj.com. Source


Peh W.,College Road | Ng K.,Interventional Imaging
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2010

A case report is a description of a single case with unique features. This includes a previously-unreported clinical condition, previously-unreported observation of a recognised disease, unique use of imaging or diagnostic test to reveal a disease, previously-unreported treatment in a recognised disease, or previously-unreported complication of a procedure. Case reports should be short and focused, with a limited number of figures and references. The structure of a case report usually comprises a short unstructured (or no) abstract, brief (or no) introduction, succinct but comprehensive report of the case, and to-the-point discussion. Source


Majumder P.,Sankara Nethralaya | Biswas J.,College Road
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Because of their varied spectrum of clinical presentation and difficulty in management, pediatric uveitis remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. Pediatric uveitis is a cause of significant ocular morbidity and severe vision loss is found in 25-33% of such cases. This article summarizes the common causes of uveitis in children with special approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of each clinical entity. Copyright: © 2013 Khandekar RB. Source


Recent genetic studies in the anuran Xenopus tropicalis reveal surprising new roles of thyroid hormone receptor in regulating growth and developmental timing in the absence of thyroid hormone. © 2015 Yen; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Poh S.L.,College Road | Linn Y.C.,College Road
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2016

We studied whether blockade of inhibitory receptors on cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells by immune checkpoint inhibitors could increase its anti-tumour potency against haematological malignancies. CIK cultures were generated from seven normal donors and nine patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or multiple myeloma (MM). The inhibitory receptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator, CD200 receptor, lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing-3 (TIM-3) were present at variable percentages in most CIK cultures, while cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1/2/3) were expressed at low level in most cultures. Without blockade, myeloid leukaemia cells were susceptible to autologous and allogeneic CIK-mediated cytotoxicity. Blockade of KIR, LAG-3, PD-1 and TIM-3 but not CTLA-4 resulted in remarkable increase in killing against these targets, even in those with poor baseline cytotoxicity. ALL and MM targets were resistant to CIK-mediated cytotoxicity, and blockade of receptors did not increase cytotoxicity to a meaningful extent. Combination of inhibitors against two receptors did not further increase cytotoxicity. Interestingly, potentiation of CIK killing by blocking antibodies was not predicted by expression of receptors on CIK and their respective ligands on the targets. Compared to un-activated T and NK cells, blockade potentiated the cytotoxicity of CIK cells to a greater degree and at a lower E:T ratio, but without significant increase in cytotoxicity against normal white cell. Our findings provide the basis for clinical trial combining autologous CIK cells with checkpoint inhibitors for patients with AML. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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