Kulahin N.,Copenhagen University |
Kulahin N.,Hagedorn Institute |
Grunnet L.G.,Hagedorn Research Institute |
Grunnet L.G.,Copenhagen University |
And 11 more authors.
Biological activity of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) depends on both adhesion and activation of intra-cellular signaling. Based on in vitro experiments with truncated extra-cellular domains, several models describing homophilic NCAM trans- and cis-interactions have been proposed. However, cis-dimerization in living cells has not been shown directly and the role of the cytoplasmic part in NCAM dimerization is poorly understood. Here, we used the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET2) technique to directly demonstrate that full-length NCAM cis-homodimerizes in living cells. Based on BRET250 values we suggest that the intra-cellular part of NCAM inhibits cis-dimerization, an effect mainly dependent on the palmitoylation sites. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
Bellmann-Sickert K.,University of Leipzig |
Elling C.E.,7TM Pharma |
Madsen A.N.,Copenhagen University |
Little P.B.,7TM Pharma |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
The main disadvantages of peptide pharmaceuticals are their rapid degradation and excretion, their low hydrophilicity, and low shelf lifes. These bottlenecks can be circumvented by acylation with fatty acids (lipidation) or polyethylene glycol (PEGylation). Here, we describe the modification of a human pancreatic polypeptide analogue specific for the human (h)Y2 and hY4 receptor with PEGs of different size and palmitic acid. Receptor specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding studies. Modifications had only a small influence on binding affinities and no influence on secondary structure. Both modifications improved pharmacokinetic properties of the hPP analogue in vivo and in vitro, however, lipidation showed a greater resistance to degradation and excretion than PEGylation. Furthermore, the lipidated peptide is taken up and degraded solely by the liver but not the kidneys. Lipidation resulted in prolonged action of the hPP analogue in respect of reducing food intake in mice after subcutaneous administration. Therefore, the lipidated hPP analogue could constitute a potential new therapeutic agent against obesity. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source
Klumpers L.E.,Center for Human Drug Research |
Fridberg M.,7TM Pharma |
De Kam M.L.,Center for Human Drug Research |
Little P.B.,7TM Pharma |
And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Aim Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonists show central side effects, whereas beneficial effects are most likely peripherally mediated. In this study, the peripherally selective CB1 antagonist TM38837 was studied in humans. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. On occasions 1-4, 24 healthy subjects received 5 × 4 mg THC with TM38837 100 mg, 500 mg or placebo, or placebos only. During occasion 5, subjects received placebo TM38837 + THC with rimonabant 60 mg or placebo in parallel groups. Blood collections and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects were assessed frequently. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and PD were quantified using population PK-PD modelling. Results The TM38837 plasma concentration profile was relatively flat compared with rimonabant. TM38837 showed an estimated terminal half-life of 771 h. THC induced effects on VAS feeling high, body sway and heart rate were partly antagonized by rimonabant 60 mg [-26.70% [90% confidence interval (CI) -40.9, -12.6%]; -7.10%, (90%CI -18.1, 5.3%); -7.30%, (90% CI -11.5%, -3.0%) respectively] and TM38837 500 mg [-22.10% (90% CI -34.9, -9.4%); -12.20% (90% CI -21.6%, -1.7%); -8.90% (90% CI -12.8%, -5.1%) respectively]. TM38837 100 mg had no measurable feeling high or body sway effects and limited heart rate effects. Conclusions Rimonabant showed larger effects than TM38837, but the heart rate effects were similar. TM38837 100 mg had no impact on CNS effects, suggesting that this dose does not penetrate the brain. This TM38837 dose is predicted to be at least equipotent to rimonabant with regard to metabolic disorders in rodent models. These results provide support for further development of TM38837 as a peripherally selective CB 1 antagonist for indications such as metabolic disorders, with a reduced propensity for psychiatric side effects. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society. Source