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Cambridge, MA, United States

Pomeroy C.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Hall-Arber M.,77 Massachusetts Avenue
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Marine renewable energy (MRE), though a relative newcomer to the ocean and coastal commons, has become a significant driver of marine spatial planning in the US, posing particular challenges to commercial fisheries and fishing communities. State and federal agencies with primary oversight for MRE development have focused on the identification of places where MRE might proceed unhindered by other uses, most notably coastal fisheries. These agencies and MRE developers have focused on potential space-use conflict and standard mitigation measures for loss of access to that space. However, discussions with fishery participants and other community members, as well as observations of processes on the US West and East Coasts, reveal a complex, multi-faceted social-ecological system not easily parsed out among users, nor amenable to classic mitigation formulas. Recent ethnographic research on potential space-use conflicts and mitigation for MRE demonstrates that marine space use is dynamic and multi-dimensional, with important linkages among fisheries, communities and other interests. Although experiences vary within and across regions and fishing communities, this research illustrates the weak position of fishing communities in marine spatial planning in the context of MRE development. This paper considers the implications of MRE for US East and West Coast fisheries and fishing communities situated within the larger context of neoliberalism and commodification of the ocean commons. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.. Source

Fenning D.P.,77 Massachusetts Avenue | Fenning D.P.,University of California at San Diego | Hofstetter J.,77 Massachusetts Avenue | Morishige A.E.,77 Massachusetts Avenue | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2014

Material defects govern the performance of a wide range of energy conversion and storage devices, including photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, and batteries. The success of large-scale, cost-effective manufacturing hinges upon rigorous material optimization to mitigate deleterious defects. Material processing simulations have the potential to accelerate novel energy technology development by modeling defect-evolution thermodynamics and kinetics during processing of raw materials into devices. Here, a predictive process optimization framework is presented for rapid material and process development. A solar cell simulation tool that models defect kinetics during processing is coupled with a genetic algorithm to optimize processing conditions in silico. Experimental samples processed according to conditions suggested by the optimization show signifi cant improvements in material performance, indicated by minority carrier lifetime gains, and confi rm the simulated directions for process improvement. This material optimization framework demonstrates the potential for process simulation to leverage fundamental defect characterization and high-throughput computing to accelerate the pace of learning in materials processing for energy applications. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

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