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Gimou M.-M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Charrondiere U.R.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO | Leblanc J.-C.,Anses | Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale Lane | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

Twenty five minerals and trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 64 pooled foods prepared "as consumed", representing 96.5% of the total diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon. High element contents (in mgkg-1) of some food samples are highlighted. "Dried spices for local sauce" (raw/toasted) highly contained calcium (7720), iron (143), magnesium (1970), potassium (20,100), copper (12.6), manganese (109), aluminium (120), and lead (14.3). "Dried and smoked fish and shrimps" (boiled) contained high levels of calcium (21,200), potassium (7300), zinc (43.6), aluminium (27.8), and arsenic (1.14). "Garden huckleberry and amaranth" (boiled/washed fresh leaves) contained high levels of calcium (3580), manganese (15.9) and barium (19.4). "Squash beans and sesame" (boiled) provided magnesium (1240), and zinc (29.5). "Shelled groundnut" (soaked/grilled/boiled) contained high levels of magnesium (1040), zinc (31.5), and copper (8.32). Selenium was found only in fish as mackerel (0.467) and sea bass (0.450). No food product exceeded the maximum levels set for lead, mercury and cadmium by the current European regulation. These results will be used for dietary exposure and health risk assessment. © 2014. Source

Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale Lane | Garin B.,Institute Pasteur Of Dakar | Garin B.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar | Ravaonindrina N.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar | And 3 more authors.
Risk Analysis

We used a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to describe the risk of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection linked to chicken meals prepared in households in Dakar, Senegal. The model uses data collected specifically for this study, such as the prevalence and level of bacteria on the neck skin of chickens bought in Dakar markets, time-temperature profiles recorded from purchase to consumption, an observational survey of meal preparation in private kitchens, and detection and enumeration of pathogens on kitchenware and cooks' hands. Thorough heating kills all bacteria present on chicken during cooking, but cross-contamination of cooked chicken or ready-to-eat food prepared for the meal via kitchenware and cooks' hands leads to a high expected frequency of pathogen ingestion. Additionally, significant growth of Salmonella is predicted during food storage at ambient temperature before and after meal preparation. These high exposures lead to a high estimated risk of campylobacteriosis and/or salmonellosis in Dakar households. The public health consequences could be amplified by the high level of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and Campylobacter observed in this setting. A significant decrease in the number of ingested bacteria and in the risk could be achieved through a reduction of the prevalence of chicken contamination at slaughter, and by the use of simple hygienic measures in the kitchen. There is an urgent need to reinforce the hygiene education of food handlers in Senegal. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis. Source

Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale Lane | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University of Lyon | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Delignette-Muller M.L.,VetAgro Sup
International Journal of Food Microbiology

Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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