7 Countryside Way andover

North Andover, MA, United States

7 Countryside Way andover

North Andover, MA, United States
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Lathecla is a widespread, primarily montane, Neotropical genus. It consists of seven species that have a relatively uniform adult wing pattern coupled with a diverse set of male secondary sexual structures. Taxonomically, we describe five species-Lathecla mitzi Robbins new species, Lathecla fernandezi Robbins & Busby new species, Lathecla vichai Robbins & Busby new species, Lathecla carolyna Busby new species and Lathecla winnie Robbins & Busby new species and remove one name from synonymy-Thecla mimula Draudt, revised status. Evidence is presented for transferring Lathecla from the Thestius Section of the Eumaeini to the Micandra section, next to Podanotum. Topology of an inferred phylogenetic tree for Lathecla is stable when male secondary sexual characters are omitted or under a variety of implied weighting options. A scent patch on the cubital vein of the dorsal surface of the forewing is unique to Lathecla and evolved (and was not lost) in the ancestor of a four-species lineage. Its sister lineage contains two species. A scent patch on the ventral surface of the forewing evolved (and was not lost) in the ancestor of a six-species lineage in Lathecla. Its sister lineage contains one species. These results, along with previous data, show the viability for the Eumaeini of the hypothesis that the evolutionary gain of a male secondary sexual organ increases the rate of species diversification. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2015.


Robbins R.K.,Smithsonian Institution | Busby R.,7 Countryside Way andover | Duarte M.,University of Sao Paulo
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2010

The Neotropical lycaenid hairstreak genus Thepytus Robbins and its eight species are revised. Species treatments summarize nomenclature, distribution, habitat, behavior, and diagnostic traits, as well as noting why each species is considered distinct under a biological species concept. An identifi cation key for males and a checklist are included. Beatheclus Bálint & Dahners new synonym is synonymized with Thepytus, and Thepytus beatrizae (Bálint & Dahners) is a new combination. Other nomenclatural actions include the description of Thepytus jennifer Busby & Robbins new species, Thepytus nancyana Busby & Robbins new species, and Thepytus carmen Robbins & Duarte new species. A lectotype is designated for Thecla thyrea Hewitson, 1867, to ensure stability of this name. A phylogenetic analysis based on 22 coded morphological characters yields one equal weight most parsimonious 39-step tree. Implied weighting does not change the tree topology. Unambiguous changes in elevation optimized on the cladogram show that a montane lineage of Thepytus colonized the lowlands in at least one instance. The use of T. echelta (Hewitson) as a biological control agent for Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) is discussed. © Museum für Tierkunde Dresden.


Robbins R.K.,Smithsonian Institution | Martins A.R.P.,Federal University of Maranhão | Busby R.C.,7 Countryside Way andover | Duarte M.,University of Sao Paulo
Insect Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Male secondary sexual characters in Lepidoptera may be present or absent in species that otherwise appear to be closely related, an observation that has led to differences of opinion over the taxonomic usefulness of these structures above the species level. An evolutionary issue raised by this debate is whether male secondary sexual characters (1) can be regained after being lost evolutionarily, (2) are not lost after being evolved, or (3) are 'switched on and off' by genes that regulate development. A second evolutionary issue is the conditions under which male secondary sexual characters might be lost or gained evolutionarily. Because these structures are thought to promote species recognition, theory predicts evolutionary losses to be most likely in allopatry; evolutionary gains to be most likely during the process of secondarily establishing sympatry or during sympatric speciation. We updated the species-level taxonomy of the brilliant emerald-winged Neotropical lycaenid butterfly genus Arcas and performed an analysis of phylogenetic relations among species to assess these evolutionary issues. We morphologically detail a scent pouch on the ventral hindwing of Arcas and report that six species possess the pouch with androconia, one possesses the pouch without androconia, and the remaining two species have neither pouch nor androconia. In addition, eight Arcas species have a morphologically species-specific male forewing scent pad, and one lacks a scent pad. This variation appears to be the result of three evolutionary losses and no gains of male secondary sexual organs. The four Arcas species lacking a scent pouch or a scent pad are allopatric with their closest phylogenetic relatives while four of five with both of these structures are sympatric. Although Arcas is a small genus, these results are significantly more extreme than predicted by chance. For taxonomy, this study provides a rationale for the evolutionary loss of male secondary sexual structures and suggests that their absence, but itself, does not indicate a lack of relationship above the species level. © 2012 by Koninklijke Brill N.V., Leiden, The Netherlands.


Faynel C.,16 rue des Aspres | Busby R.C.,7 Countryside Way andover | Robbins R.K.,Smithsonian Institution
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

Seven new species of the Neotropical hairstreak genus Oenomaus are described: O. mancha Busby & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador); O. gwenish Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Panama); O. lea Faynel & Robbins, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador); O. myrteana Busby, Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador); O. mentirosa Faynel & Robbins, sp. n. (type locality Peru); O. andi Busby & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Ecuador) and O. moseri Robbins & Faynel, sp. n. (type locality Brazil, Santa Catarina). For each new Oenomaus species, we present diagnostic characters and notes on its habitat and biology. We illustrate adults, genitalia, and distribution. New distributional and biological data are presented for 21 previously described Oenomaus species. Oenomaus melleus guyanensis Faynel, 2008 is treated as a new synonym of O. m. melleus (Druce, 1907). Females are described and associated with males for ten species using a variety of factors, including mitochondrial COI DNA "barcode" sequences. We summarize the reasons why the number of recognized Oenomaus species has grown in the past decade from one species to 28 species. Finally, we overview the habitats that Oenomaus species occupy and note that the agricultural pest on Annonaceae, O. ortygnus, is the only Oenomaus species that regularly occurs in greatly disturbed habitats. © Christophe Faynel et al.


PubMed | Smithsonian Institution, 7 Countryside Way andover and Cra 76A
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2015

The Thereus oppia species group includes species with and without a scent pad, which is a histologically and morphologically characterized male secondary sexual structure on the dorsal surface of the forewing. To assess the hypothesis that these structures are lost evolutionarily, but not regained (Dollos Law), the taxonomy of this species group is revised. Thereus lomalarga sp. n., and Thereus brocki sp. n., are described. Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated. Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species. Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae. An inferred phylogeny is consistent with the hypothesis that scent pads in the Thereus oppia species group have been lost evolutionarily twice (in allopatry), and not re-gained.

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