Sankavaram K.,624 Horsebarn Road Extension |
Chong L.,624 Horsebarn Road Extension |
Bruno R.S.,624 Horsebarn Road Extension |
Bruno R.S.,Ohio State University |
Freake H.C.,624 Horsebarn Road Extension
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2014
Zinc deficiency and excess influence cellular homeostasis and are believed to modulate apoptosis. Zinc also regulates cell growth and proliferation. Understanding of the role of zinc in the mechanisms associated with these changes is limited because of its diverse, complex, and cell-specific effects. Therefore, we investigated the oxidative stress responses and the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the disruption of intracellular zinc homeostasis in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. We found that zinc excess (100 μM) and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid; 50-100 μM) induced zinc deficiency both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease viability in H4IIE cells. However, cotreatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) both reduced ROS production and protected cells from death. We additionally observed an increase in Bax mRNA and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in DTPA-treated cells and an elevated expression of Fas/Fas ligand mRNA with zinc treatment. Both treatments increased p53 and MdM2 protein concentrations along with caspase 3/7 activity. These results suggest that zinc deficiency stimulates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis whereas zinc activates the extrinsic-apoptotic pathway. Both decreasing and increasing cellular zinc concentrations modulate ROS mediated apoptosis and warrant further research on zinc mediated cancer chemoprevention in this and other cancer cell lines. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.