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Knoxville, TN, United States

Low clearance gas bearing applications require an understanding of surface roughness effects at increased levels of Knudsen number. Because very little information has been reported on the relative air-bearing influence of roughness location, this paper is focused on a comparison of the effects of moving and stationary striated surface roughness under high Knudsen number conditions. First, an appropriate lubrication equation will be derived based on multiple-scale analysis that extends the work of White (2010, A Gas Lubrication Equation for High Knudsen Number Flows and Striated Rough Surfaces, ASME J. Tribol., 132, p. 021701). The resulting roughness averaged equation, applicable for both moving and stationary roughness over a wide range of Knudsen numbers, allows an arbitrary striated roughness orientation with regard to both (1) the direction of surface translation and (2) the bearing coordinates. Next, the derived lubrication equation is used to analyze and compare the influences produced by a stepped transverse roughness pattern located on the moving and the stationary bearing surface of a wedge bearing geometry of variable inclination. Computed results are obtained for both incompressible and compressible lubricants, but with an emphasis on high Knudsen number flow. Significant differences in air-bearing performance are found to occur for moving versus stationary roughness. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Current industrial applications require a consideration of two-dimensional surface roughness effects in design and optimization of fluid bearings. Although the influence of striated surface roughness on fluid lubrication is now at a fairly mature level of understanding, the knowledge and understanding of two-dimensional roughness effects is not nearly at the same level as that achieved over the past several decades for one-dimensional striations. The subject of this paper includes the formulation of a practical roughness averaged lubrication equation that is appropriate for two-dimensional surface roughness and applicable over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. After derivation by multiple-scale analysis, the resulting lubrication equation is specialized to treat the patterned data islands located on a storage medium as a two-dimensional roughness pattern, and then used to determine the effect of this roughness on the air-bearing interface between recording head slider and disk. The roughness averaged lubrication equation is solved numerically by a variable-grid finite-difference algorithm, and computed results are included for several bearing geometries. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Numerical solution of heat conduction in a heterogeneous material with small spatial and time scales can lead to excessive compute times due to the dense computational grids required. This problem is avoided by averaging the energy equation over the smallscales, which removes the appearance of the short spatial and time scales while retaining their effect on the average temperature. Averaging does, however, increase the complexity of the resulting thermal energy equation by introducing mixed spatial derivatives and six different averaged conductivity terms for three-dimensional analysis. There is a need for a numerical method that efficiently and accurately handles these complexities as well as the other details of the averaged thermal energy equation. That is the topic of this paper as it describes a numerical solution for the averaged thermal energy equation based on Fourier conduction reported recently in the literature. The solution, based on finite difference techniques that are second-order time-accurate and noniterative, is appropriate for three-dimensional time-dependent and steady-state analysis. Speed of solution is obtained by spatially factoring the scheme into an alternating direction sequence at each time level. Numerical stability is enhanced by implicit algorithms that make use of the properties of tightly banded matrices. While accurately accounting for the nonlinearity introduced into the energy equation by temperature-dependent properties, the numerical solution algorithm requires only the consideration of linear systems of algebraic equations in advancing the solution from one time level to the next. Computed examples are included and compared with those for a homogeneous material. Copyright © 2016 by ASME. Source


White J.,6017 Glenmary Road
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2015

In order to better manage computational requirements in the study of thermal conduction with short-scale heterogeneous materials, one is motivated to arrange the thermal energy equation into an accurate and efficient form with averaged properties. This should then allow an averaged temperature solution to be determined with a moderate computational effort. That is the topic of this paper as it describes the development using multiple-scale analysis of an averaged thermal energy equation based on Fourier heat conduction for a heterogeneous material with isotropic properties. The averaged energy equation to be reported is appropriate for a stationary or moving solid and three-dimensional heat flow. Restrictions are that the solid must display its heterogeneous properties over short spatial and time scales that allow averages of its properties to be determined. One distinction of the approach taken is that all short-scale effects, both moving and stationary, are combined into a single function during the analytical development. The result is a self-contained form of the averaged energy equation. By eliminating the need for coupling the averaged energy equation with external local problem solutions, numerical solutions are simplified and made more efficient. Also, as a result of the approach taken, nine effective averaged thermal conductivity terms are identified for three-dimensional conduction (and four effective terms for two-dimensional conduction). These conductivity terms are defined with two types of averaging for the component material conductivities over the short-scales and in terms of the relative proportions of the short-scales. Numerical results are included and discussed. © 2015 by ASME. Source


Design of a near contact air bearing interface such as that created by a recording head slider and data storage disk requires consideration of a lubrication equation that is appropriate for high Knudsen number flows. The Poiseuille flow database reported by Fukui and Kaneko, 1990 ["A Database for Interpolation of Poiseuille Flow Rates for High Knudsen Number Lubrication Problems," ASME J. Tribol., 112, pp. 78-83] is appropriate over a wide range of Knudsen numbers and is used throughout the data storage industry for analysis of the low flying recording head slider air bearing. However, at such low clearances, the topography of the air bearing surfaces also comes into question, making it important to consider both rarefaction and surface roughness effects in the air bearing design. In order to simplify the air bearing analysis of rough surfaces, averaging techniques for the lubrication equation have been developed for situations where the number of roughness elements (or waves) is either much greater or much less than the gas bearing number. Between these two extremes there are currently no roughness averaging methods available. Although some analytical and numerical studies have been reported for continuum and first-order slip conditions with simple geometries, little or no results have appeared that include both surface roughness and high Knudsen number flows outside the limited ranges where surface averaging techniques are used. In order to better understand the influence of transverse surface roughness over a wide range of Knudsen numbers and the relationship of key parameters involved, this paper describes a primarily analytical air bearing study of a wide, rough surface slider bearing using the Poiseuille flow database reported by Fukui and Kaneko. The work is focused outside the limited ranges where current surface averaging methods for the lubrication equation are expected to be valid. © 2010 by ASME. Source

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