Time filter

Source Type

Salem, OR, United States

Niwa C.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Overhulser D.L.,600 State Street
USDA Forest Service - Research Note PNW-RN

A detailed procedure is described for monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone-baited sticky traps and interpreting the results to predict defoliation the following year. Information provided includes timing of the survey, how to obtain traps and baits, how many traps are needed, trap assembly, field placement of traps, and how to evaluate the catches. © 2015, USDA Forest Service. All rights reserved. Source

Sims L.,Oregon State University | Sims L.,University of California at Berkeley | Goheen E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kanaskie A.,600 State Street | Hansen E.,Oregon State University
Northwest Science

We gathered baseline data to assess alder tree damage in western Oregon riparian ecosystems. We sought to determine if Phytophthora-type cankers found in Europe or the pathogen Phytophthora alni subsp. alni, which represent a major threat to alder forests in the Pacific Northwest, were present in the study area. Damage was evaluated in 88 transects; information was recorded on damage type (pathogen, insect or wound) and damage location. We evaluated 1445 red alder (Alnus rubra), 682 white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) and 181 thinleaf alder (Alnus incana spp. tenuifolia) trees. We tested the correlation between canopy dieback and canker symptoms because canopy dieback is an important symptom of Phytophthora disease of alder in Europe. We calculated the odds that alder canopy dieback was associated with Phytophthora-type cankers or other biotic cankers. P. alni subsp. alni (the causal agent of alder disease in Europe) was not identified in western Oregon; however, Phytophthora siskiyouensis was isolated from Phytophthora-type cankers which were present on 2% of red alder trees and 3% of white alder trees. The odds of canopy dieback were 5.4 and 4.8 times greater for red and white alder (respectively) with Phytophthora-type canker symptoms than in trees without such cankers. The percentage of trees with canopy dieback was 51%, 32%, and 10% for red, white, and thinleaf alder respectively. Other common damage included wounding, foliar pathogens and insects on red alder. This is the first report of Phytophthora canker of alder in United States forests and first report of P. siskiyouensis isolation from alder in forests anywhere. © 2015, Washington State University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Ager A.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Finney M.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Mcmahan A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cathcart J.,600 State Street
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science

Wildfire simulation modelling was used to examine whether fuel reduction treatments can potentially reduce future wildfire emissions and provide carbon benefits. In contrast to previous reports, the current study modelled landscape scale effects of fuel treatments on fire spread and intensity, and used a probabilistic framework to quantify wildfire effects on carbon pools to account for stochastic wildfire occurrence. The study area was a 68 474 ha watershed located on the Fremont-Winema National Forest in southeastern Oregon, USA. Fuel reduction treatments were simulated on 10% of the watershed (19% of federal forestland). We simulated 30 000 wildfires with random ignition locations under both treated and untreated landscapes to estimate the change in burn probability by flame length class resulting from the treatments. Carbon loss functions were then calculated with the Forest Vegetation Simulator for each stand in the study area to quantify change in carbon as a function of flame length. We then calculated the expected change in carbon from a random ignition and wildfire as the sum of the product of the carbon loss and the burn probabilities by flame length class. The expected carbon difference between the non-treatment and treatment scenarios was then calculated to quantify the effect of fuel treatments. Overall, the results show that the carbon loss from implementing fuel reduction treatments exceeded the expected carbon benefit associated with lowered burn probabilities and reduced fire severity on the treated landscape. Thus, fuel management activities resulted in an expected net loss of carbon immediately after treatment. However, the findings represent a point in time estimate (wildfire immediately after treatments), and a temporal analysis with a probabilistic framework used here is needed to model carbon dynamics over the life cycle of the fuel treatments. Of particular importance is the long-term balance between emissions from the decay of dead trees killed by fire and carbon sequestration by forest regeneration following wildfire. © Author(s) 2008. Source

Klocko A.L.,Oregon State University | Meilan R.,Purdue University | James R.R.,Utah State University | Viswanath V.,Global Institute of Intellectual Property GIIP | And 7 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research

The stability and value of transgenic pest resistance for promoting tree growth are poorly understood. These data are essential for determining if such trees could be beneficial to commercial growers in the face of substantial regulatory and marketing costs. We investigated growth and insect resistance in hybrid poplar expressing the cry3Aa transgene in two field trials. An initial screening of 502 trees comprising 51 transgenic gene insertion events in four clonal backgrounds (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides, clones 24-305, 50-197, and 198-434; and P. deltoides × Populus nigra, clone OP-367) resulted in transgenic trees with greatly reduced insect damage. A large-scale study of 402 trees from nine insertion events in clone OP-367, conducted over two growing seasons, demonstrated reduced tree damage and significantly increased volume growth (mean 14%). Quantification of Cry3Aa protein indicated high levels of expression, which continued after 14 years of annual or biannual coppice in a clone bank. With integrated management, the cry3Aa gene appears to be a highly effective tool for protecting against leaf beetle damage and improving yields from poplar plantations. Source

Groom J.D.,Oregon State University | Dent L.,600 State Street | Madsen L.J.,Oregon State University
Water Resources Research

Oregon's forested coastal watersheds support important cold-water fisheries of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) as well as forestry-dependent local economies. Riparian timber harvest restrictions in Oregon and elsewhere are designed to protect stream habitat characteristics while enabling upland timber harvest. We present an assessment of riparian leave tree rule effectiveness at protecting streams from temperature increases in the Oregon Coast Range. We evaluated temperature responses to timber harvest at 33 privately owned and state forest sites with Oregon's water quality temperature antidegradation standard, the Protecting Cold Water (PCW) criterion. At each site we evaluated stream temperature patterns before and after harvest upstream, within, and downstream of harvest units. We developed a method for detecting stream temperature change between years that adhered as closely as possible to Oregon's water quality rule language. The procedure provided an exceedance history across sites that allowed us to quantify background and treatment (timber harvest) PCW exceedance rates. For streams adjacent to harvested areas on privately owned lands, preharvest to postharvest year comparisons exhibited a 40% probability of exceedance. Sites managed according to the more stringent state forest riparian standards did not exhibit exceedance rates that differed from preharvest, control, or downstream rates (5%). These results will inform policy discussion regarding the sufficiency of Oregon's forest practices regulation at protecting stream temperature. The analysis process itself may assist other states and countries in developing and evaluating their forest management and water quality antidegradation regulations. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Discover hidden collaborations