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Rockville, MD, United States

Burkhardt J.,600 Research Boulevard | Garrity R.,RLS and Associates Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

With rising fuel prices and limited budgets, transportation providers are more frequently being asked to work cooperatively with other agencies to ensure the most cost-effective service delivery. This situation is particularly true for transportation for human services needs: public transportation providers and human services agencies are being asked to coordinate their efforts to ensure maximum productivity at minimum cost. Over the years, one commonly reported hindrance to coordination efforts is the lack of a common, systematic approach to documentation of transportation services and their costs. Many studies found that agencies that provide transportation services need better cost and service accounting to support coordination efforts. This paper results from work conducted for TCRP that described how costs should be allocated and shared among all stakeholders. The results of this project include a common framework for recording and reporting of transportation costs and services, whether they are provided by transit agencies or human services transportation providers and whether the transportation providers are large or small operations. Other products of the TCRP project include a transportation services cost-sharing model (developed in Excel format) and instructions on how to apply that model to community transportation services.

Burke-Garcia A.,600 Research Boulevard | Scally G.,University of the West of England
Journal of public health (Oxford, England) | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Digital media usage is expanding enormously and is starting to be used as a public health intervention and communication tool. It has an ability to increase the reach of public health research and communication, as well as drive measurable behaviour change. But there is an absence of both deep and wide understanding of the opportunities within digital media, i.e. most people think only of Facebook and Twitter when they think of social media; smart, strategic planning for its widespread use is not common practice and rigorous evaluative studies of its effectiveness are few and far between.METHODS: This paper analyses the published literature on this topic and identifies the top 10 directions that use of digital media is likely to take in the medium term.RESULTS: The analysis strongly supports the position that digital media needs to be taken seriously as a vehicle for public health activity in its own right and not merely as an adjunct to other campaigns.CONCLUSIONS: Digital media will continue to develop and move from being an add-on to existing activity to being the major vehicle for significant elements of research, data collection and advocacy. It is important that public health leaders fully understand and engage in its development and use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. for permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Brown M.E.,NASA | Grace K.,University of Utah | Shively G.,Purdue University | Shively G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Population and Environment | Year: 2014

Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. © 2014 The Author(s).

Tourangeau R.,600 Research Boulevard | Couper M.P.,University of Michigan | Conrad F.G.,University of Michigan
Public Opinion Quarterly | Year: 2013

This paper presents results from six experiments that examine the effect of the position of an item on the screen on the evaluative ratings it receives. The experiments are based on the idea that respondents expect "good" things-those they view positively-to be higher up on the screen than "bad" things. The experiments use items on different topics (Congress and HMOs, a variety of foods, and six physician specialties) and different methods for varying their vertical position on the screen. A meta-analysis of all six experiments demonstrates a small but reliable effect of the item's screen position on mean ratings of the item; the ratings are significantly more positive when the item appears in a higher position on the screen than when it appears farther down. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that respondents follow the "Up means good" heuristic, using the vertical position of the item as a cue in evaluating it. Respondents seem to rely on heuristics both in interpreting response scales and in forming judgments. © 2013 The Author.

Tourangeau R.,600 Research Boulevard | Conrad F.G.,University of Maryland University College | Conrad F.G.,University of Michigan | Couper M.P.,University of Maryland University College | And 2 more authors.
Public Opinion Quarterly | Year: 2014

We conducted a preliminary study and two follow-up studies investigating how providing examples affected responses to survey questions about food consumption. The results of the first follow-up study indicated that, when the examples were frequently consumed food items, respondents reported higher consumption than when they were infrequently consumed items. In addition, atypical examples had greater impact on the answers than did typical examples, probably because respondents are likely to think of the typical instances anyway. Our second follow-up study compared answers to open-ended food consumption questions with answers to closed-ended food consumption questions; respondents tended to leave food items out of the open responses (as compared to the closed responses), but this tendency was reduced for the items they received as examples with the open-ended questions. Examples seem to improve the accuracy of the answers when they remind respondents to include items they might otherwise have left out, because they either had forgotten them or were unsure whether to include them. Overall, these results suggest that respondents base their food-consumption judgments on a limited set of category members. The examples affect which and how many category members they consider. © The Author 2014.

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