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Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Nakashima Y.,Kyoto University | Inoue E.,Kyoto University | Inoue-Murayama M.,Kyoto University | Sukor J.R.A.,5th Floor
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Many carnivorous mammals consume fruits and disperse the intact seeds to specific sites. Few studies have attempted to quantify this seed dispersal or evaluate its effectiveness, despite its potential importance and functional uniqueness. In the study reported here, we found that a frugivorous carnivore, the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), generated seed shadows that are distinct from those of the sympatric frugivore, the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), and played a unique and important role in the regeneration of Leea aculeata (Leeaceae). We found that macaques dispersed the seeds randomly, while civets dispersed them non-randomly to sites such as the banks of small rivers, rain-flow paths, abandoned trails, and treefall gaps, which are characterized by low stem density and canopy cover. Seeds of L. aculeata that were dispersed by civets to the banks of rivers and gaps had significantly higher survival and growth rates than those dispersed to rain-flow paths or abandoned trails. Seeds dispersed by macaques or to random locations also had low survival. Although the effects of the civets on seed fate were not straightforward, compared with macaques and random dispersal, civets significantly enhanced the survival and growth of L. aculeata seeds after 1 year. These results indicate that non-random dispersal by civets is important for the persistence of L. aculeata. Civets may disperse other plant species and thus could have profound effects on forest dynamics. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Matsuda I.,Kyoto University | Tuuga A.,5th Floor | Bernard H.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Mammalian Biology | Year: 2011

Riverine refuging by non-human primates, with focus on proboscis monkeys, was studied in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia from May 2005 to 2006. The results of the primate census indicated that not only proboscis monkeys but also sympatric primates inhabiting the study site preferred to utilize the riverine habitat for night-time sleeping, though the frequency of riverine usage was different among these sympatric primates. Four predation-related events in the study site and two additional predation reports at other study sites involving clouded leopards suggest a relatively high predation pressure in proboscis monkeys relative to other sympatric primates. Riverine refuging, which represents a strategy of long-range visibility, may provide non-human primates including proboscis monkeys with the common benefit of an effective means of predation avoidance. In addition, a one-male group of proboscis monkeys was studied to clarify the effects of food availability and air temperature on riverine refuging. Proboscis monkeys spent more time in the inland habitat, though the food availability was not much different between riverine and inland habitats, indicating that food availability is not a fundamental factor in their preference for riverine habitat. Air temperature only had a small effect on their preference for the riverine habitat. However, to clarify the reasons why riverine refuging is more common in proboscis monkeys than in sympatric primates, further investigation is needed. © 2010 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.


Matsubayashi H.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah | Ahmad A.H.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah | Wakamatsu N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Nakazono E.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2011

The use of natural-licks by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) was investigated with camera traps in the Deramakot production forest, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The results showed that 1) Although orangutans were in the top three species at all the natural-licks, visitation frequency differed at the natural licks depending on the surrounding environment; 2) Natural-licks use by orangutans was impacted more by human activity than concentration of the minerals; and 3) Visiting proportion of each orangutan class: flanged male, female with infant, and others, showed that flanged male accounted for 31%; female with infant, 17%; and others, 52%; although we had anticipated a bias toward the flanged male. These results suggest that the natural-licks are key habitats for all classes of orangutans and suitable sites for ground monitoring. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that other production forests adopt protection of natural licks and managed as a monitoring site for orangutan habitat conservation. Furthermore, as orangutans are vulnerable to human activity, it is necessary to manage natural-licks as protected area with buffer zones of reduced human activity. © National University of Singapore.


Clements R.,World Wide Fund for Nature WWF Malaysia | Rayan D.M.,World Wide Fund for Nature WWF Malaysia | Zafir A.W.A.,World Wide Fund for Nature WWF Malaysia | Venkataraman A.,World Wide Fund for Nature WWF Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

Three of Malaysia's endangered large mammal species are experiencing contrasting futures. Populations of the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) have dwindled to critically low numbers in Peninsular Malaysia (current estimates need to be revised) and the state of Sabah (less than 40 individuals estimated). In the latter region, a bold intervention involving the translocation of isolated rhinos is being developed to concentrate them into a protected area to improve reproduction success rates. For the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), recently established baselines for Peninsular Malaysia (0.09 elephants/km2 estimated from one site) and Sabah (between 0.56 and 2.15 elephants/km2 estimated from four sites) seem to indicate globally significant populations based on dung count surveys. Similar surveys are required to monitor elephant population trends at these sites and to determine baselines elsewhere. The population status of the Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) in Peninsular Malaysia, however, remains uncertain as only a couple of scientifically defensible camera-trapping surveys (1.66 and 2.59 tigers/100 km2 estimated from two sites) have been conducted to date. As conservation resources are limited, it may be prudent to focus tiger monitoring and protection efforts in priority areas identified by the National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia. Apart from reviewing the conservation status of rhinos, elephants and tigers and threats facing them, we highlight existing and novel conservation initiatives, policies and frameworks that can help secure the long-term future of these iconic species in Malaysia. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


The objective of this research was to determine if the triglyceride (TG) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio has similar utility for discriminating insulin resistance in Caribbean-born black persons with and without Hispanic ethnicity. Serum lipids, glucose and insulin were determined and compared for 144 Hispanic blacks and 655 non-Hispanic blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve statistics were used to evaluate the ability of the TG/HDL ratio to discriminate insulin resistance in the two ethnic groups. Hispanic blacks had significantly higher levels of triglycerides and insulin resistance and a lower level of HDL cholesterol than non-Hispanic blacks. The AUROC curve for the ability of the TG/HDL to discriminate insulin resistance was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.79) for Hispanic blacks and 0.64 (95% CI = 0.59, 0.69) for non-Hispanic blacks. Among Caribbean-born black persons living in the US Virgin Islands, the TG/HDL ratio is a useful screening measure for discriminating insulin resistance in those with Hispanic ethnicity but not in those without Hispanic ethnicity.

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