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Charlottetown, Canada

Burton G.W.,Avivagen Inc. | Daroszewski J.,Avivagen Inc. | Mogg T.J.,Avivagen Inc. | Nikiforov G.B.,Avivagen Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

We reported previously that the spontaneous oxidation of β-carotene and other carotenoids proceeds predominantly by formation of carotenoid-oxygen copolymers and that β-carotene copolymers exhibit immunological activity, including priming innate immune function and limiting inflammatory processes. Oxidative loss of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables occurs during processing. Here we report evidence for the occurrence of associated analogous copolymer compounds. Geronic acid, an indirect, low molecular weight marker of β-carotene oxidation at ∼2% of β-carotene copolymers, is found to occur in common fresh or dried foods, including carrots, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, paprika, rosehips, seaweeds, and alfalfa, at levels encompassing an approximately thousand-fold range, from low ng/g in fresh foods to μg/g in dried foods. Copolymers isolated from several dried foods reach mg/g levels: comparable to initial carotenoid levels. In vivo biological activity of supplemental β-carotene copolymers has been previously documented at μg/g levels, suggesting that some foods could have related activity. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Burr J.F.,550 University Avenue | Phillips A.A.,Experimental Medicine | Drury T.C.,University of British Columbia | Ivey A.C.,Experimental Medicine | Warburton D.E.R.,University of British Columbia
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the arterial stiffness of male ultra-marathon runners (n=9) using pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and radial tonometry over the course of an ultra-marathon and during recovery. Measures were collected at rest, immediately following 45km/75km of running, then following 60 and 90min of recovery. No statistical difference was found between baseline cfPWV and normative values. The cfPWV of ultra-endurance runners decreased at 45km (3.4±1.6m/s, p=0.006), followed by an increase (1.6±1.8m/s, p=0.04) toward baseline levels at the 75km mark. Radial tonometry measures also indicated small artery stiffness was transiently increased after 75km. The amount of training time (r=0.82, p=0.007) and the duration of a typical training session (r=0.73, p=0.03) were correlated strongly with persisting decrements in large artery compliance at 60min of recovery. The finding that arterial stiffness decreased at the 45km distance and then reverted back toward baseline levels with prolonged running, may indicate a role of exercise duration or accumulated stress for affecting vascular compliance. At present, it is premature to suggest that athletes should alter training or racing practices to protect vascular health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York. Source

Overy D.P.,University of Prince Edward Island | Overy D.P.,550 University Avenue | Groman D.,University of Prince Edward Island | Giles J.,University of Prince Edward Island | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health | Year: 2015

Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut. © American Fisheries Society 2015. Source

Clancey N.,University of Prince Edward Island | Horney B.,University of Prince Edward Island | Burton S.,University of Prince Edward Island | Birkenheuer A.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1×2 μm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic bronchopneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia micrcrti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are vet to be determined. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010. Source

Overy D.P.,University of Prince Edward Island | Overy D.P.,550 University Avenue | Martin C.,University of Prince Edward Island | Muckle A.,University of Prince Edward Island | And 3 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2015

A 7-year-old female-spayed, domestic short-haired cat was presented to her veterinarian with a mass on the hind paw. Histopathologic examination of a tissue biopsy revealed nodular pyogranulomatous panniculitis with intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae. A dematiaceous fungal isolate was isolated with a micromorphological phenotype consistent with the anamorphic genus Exophiala: budding cells, torulose mycelium and annellidic conidiogenesis from simple conidiophores consisting of terminal and lateral cells that tapered to a short beak at the apex. Sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA gene confirmed the identification of the isolate as Exophialaattenuata. Reported here is the first confirmed case of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. attenuata in North America. Similar to historical cases of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spp., there was no history or postmortem evidence to suggest the patient was in an immunocompromised state (e.g., suffering from FeLV or FIV). Although aggressive surgical excision of local lesions is recommended prior to drug treatment when dealing with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, surgery followed by itraconazole treatment did not resolve the E. attenuata infection in this cat. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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