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Charlottetown, Canada

Duquette S.C.,University of Calgary | Fischer C.D.,University of Calgary | Feener T.D.,University of Calgary | Muench G.P.,University of Calgary | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate immunomodulatory properties of all-trans retinoic acid and a fully oxidized β-carotene dietary product in calves with Mannheimia haemolytica–induced pneumonia.Animal—Twenty-five 6- to 10-week-old male Holstein calves for experimental inoculations and three 8- to 30-week-old Angus heifers for blood donations.Procedures—In vitro, neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from blood of healthy Angus heifers were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (1μM) or fully oxidized β-carotene (8.3 μg/mL) for various times and assessed for markers of cellular death, antimicrobial function, and production of proinflammatory leukotriene B4. Following 28 days of dietary supplementation with fully oxidized β-carotene, Holstein calves were experimentally inoculated with M haemolytica. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected at 3 and 24 hours after challenge inoculation and analyzed for markers of apoptosis.Results—In vitro, all-trans retinoic acid and fully oxidized β-carotene induced cell-selective, caspase-3–dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which subsequently enhanced efferocytosis in macrophages. Conversely, neither treatment altered phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate– induced oxidative burst, phagocytosis of nonopsonized zymosan (complement or antibody independent), or M haemolytica–induced leukotriene B4 production in bovine neutrophils. In vivo, fully oxidized β-carotene enhanced leukocyte apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as subsequent efferocytosis by macrophages without altering numbers of circulating leukocytes.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent efferocytosis by macrophages are key mechanisms in the resolution of inflammation. Findings for the present study indicated that all-trans retinoic acid and fully oxidized β-carotene could be novel nutraceutical strategies that may confer anti-inflammatory benefits for cattle with respiratory tract disease. © 2014, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Burton G.W.,Avivagen Inc. | Daroszewski J.,Avivagen Inc. | Nickerson J.G.,550 University Ave | Johnston J.B.,National Research Council Canada | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Chemistry

Carotenoids are reported to have immunological effects independent of vitamin A activity. Although antioxidant activity has been suggested as a basis of action, the ability of carotenoids to autoxidize to numerous non-vitamin A products with immunological activity is an alternative yet to be fully explored. We have undertaken a systematic study of β-carotene autoxidation and tested the product mixture for immunological activity. Autoxidation proceeds predominantly by oxygen copolymerization, leading to a defined, reproducible product corresponding to net uptake of almost 8 molar equivalents of oxygen. The product, termed OxC-beta, empirical formula C40H60O 15 versus C40H56 for β-carotene, contains more than 30% oxygen (w/w) and 85% β-carotene oxygen copolymers (w/w) as well as minor amounts of many C8-C18 norisoprenoid compounds. No vitamin A or higher molecular weight norisoprenoids are present. The predominance of polymeric products has not been reported previously. The polymer appears to be a less polymerized form of sporopollenin, a biopolymer found in exines of spores and pollen. Autoxidations of lycopene and canthaxanthin show a similar predominance of polymeric products. OxC-beta exhibits immunological activity in a PCR gene expression array, indicating that carotenoid oxidation produces non-vitamin A products with immunomodulatory potential. © 2014 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Overy D.P.,550 University Ave | Overy D.P.,University of Prince Edward Island | Berrue F.,550 University Ave | Berrue F.,University of Prince Edward Island | And 12 more authors.

Due to a rate increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to currently used antibiotics, there is a need in society for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. Historically, fungi are a proven source for antimicrobial compounds. The main goals of this study were to investigate the fungal diversity associated with sea foam collected around the coast of Prince Edward Island and the utility of this resource for the production of antimicrobial natural products. Obtained isolates were identified using ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, fermented on four media, extracted and fractions enriched in secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity. The majority of the isolates obtained were ascomycetes, consisting of four recognized marine taxa along with other ubiquitous genera and many 'unknown' isolates that could not be identified to the species level using rDNA gene sequences. Secondary metabolite isolation efforts lead to the purification of the metabolites epolones A and B, pycnidione and coniothyrione from a strain of Neosetophoma samarorum; brefeldin A, leptosin J and the metabolite TMC-264 from an unknown fungus (probably representative of an Edenia sp.); and 1-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone, chrysophanol and chrysophanol bianthrone from a Phaeospheria spartinae isolate. The biological activity of each of these metabolites was assessed against a panel of microbial pathogens as well as several cell lines. © 2014 © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

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