50 State Street

Bangor, ME, United States

50 State Street

Bangor, ME, United States
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White E.L.,Albany State University | Hunt P.D.,Audubon Society of New Hampshire | Schlesinger M.D.,Albany State University | Corser J.D.,Albany State University | De Maynadier P.G.,50 State Street
Freshwater Science | Year: 2015

Odonata are valuable biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem integrity and climate change, and the northeastern USA (Virginia to Maine) is a hotspot of odonate diversity and a region of historical and growing threats to freshwater ecosystems. This duality highlights the urgency of developing a comprehensive conservation assessment of the region's 228 resident odonate species. We offer a prioritization framework modified from NatureServe's method for assessing conservation status ranks by assigning a single regional vulnerability metric (R-rank) reflecting each species' degree of relative extinction risk in the northeastern USA. We calculated the R-rank based on 3 rarity factors (range extent, area of occupancy, and habitat specificity), 1 threat factor (vulnerability of occupied habitats), and 1 trend factor (relative change in range size). We combine this R-rank with the degree of endemicity (% of the species' USA and Canadian range that falls within the region) as a proxy for regional responsibility, thereby deriving a list of species of combined vulnerability and regional management responsibility. Overall, 18% of the region's odonate fauna is imperiled (R1 and R2), and peatlands, low-gradient streams and seeps, high-gradient headwaters, and larger rivers that harbor a disproportionate number of these species should be considered as priority habitat types for conservation. We anticipate that our analysis might serve as a model for guiding and standardizing conservation assessments at multiple scales for Odonata and other diverse taxa that have not yet received attention to prioritization. © 2015 by The Society for Freshwater Science.

Fanson K.V.,Macquarie University | Fanson K.V.,Purdue University | Wielebnowski N.C.,Chicago Zoological Society | Shenk T.M.,Mammals Research | And 3 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results indicate that Canada lynx have persistent corpora lutea, which underlie their uncharacteristic fP profiles compared to other felids. Thus, fP are not useful for diagnosing pregnancy in Canada lynx. We also found that Canada lynx are capable of ovulating spontaneously. Captive females had higher concentrations of fE and fP than wild females. Both populations exhibit a seasonal increase in ovarian activity (as measured by fE) between February and April. Finally, there was evidence of ovarian suppression when females were housed together. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Simons-Legaard E.M.,University of Maine, United States | Harrison D.J.,University of Maine, United States | Krohn W.B.,University of Maine, United States | Vashon J.H.,50 State Street
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2013

We evaluated patterns of occurrence and non-occurrence for Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across a 16,530-km2 study area in Maine to provide a better understanding of lynx habitat selection and habitat ecology on commercially managed forestlands in the Acadian Forest. Because of the influence of forest structure on lynx habitat selection and abundance of their primary prey, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), and to improve our ability to build robust models, we used habitat information derived from a time series of Landsat satellite imagery spanning the period 1973-2004. We defined and mapped 10 forest types based on forest harvest history, time since harvest, and current forest condition. We compared a suite of models to evaluate relative influences of forest composition, habitat patch configuration, and hare density on habitat selection by lynx at the landscape scale. Occupied areas had greater average hare densities and percentage of mature conifer. Average hare density in occupied areas (0.74 hares/ha) was greater than in unoccupied areas (0.62 hares/ha), but was less than previous research has suggested may be necessary to support lynx populations in the southern portion of the species' range. No occupied areas occurred where average hare density was <0.5 hares/ha. Average hare density at the landscape-scale was strongly influenced by amount of high-quality hare habitat (i.e., conifer or mixedwood regenerating forest, 15-35 yr post-harvest). Edge density between mature conifer and high-quality hare habitat was substantially greater in occupied areas compared to unoccupied areas. Juxtaposition of those 2 forest types may provide edge habitat where lynx experience easier travel and improved access to prey in landscapes with extensive areas of high-quality hare habitat where travel and access may be somewhat limited by high understory stem density. Probability of occurrence declined nonlinearly with changes in hare density and percent mature conifer forest in the landscape; thus, suitability of currently occupied landscapes could change markedly with future changes in landscape-level hare densities and changing habitat associated with forest management. Where lynx conservation is a priority, we recommend that managers focus on creating and maintaining a minimum of 27% high-quality hare habitat within 100-km2 areas to promote landscape-scale hare densities >0.5 hares/ha. © The Wildlife Society, 2013.

Wathen G.,University of Maine, United States | Zydlewski J.,University of Maine, United States | Coghlan Jr. S.M.,University of Maine, United States | Trial J.G.,50 State Street
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2012

Invasive smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have been introduced to some of the last remaining watersheds that contain wild anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, yet little is known about the interactions between these species. We used an artificial stream equipped with passive integrated transponder tag antenna arrays to monitor habitat use and movements of age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in sympatry and allopatry. We used additive and substitutive designs to test for changes in habitat use, diel movements, and diel activity patterns of prior-resident Atlantic salmon or smallmouth bass resulting from the addition of conspecifics or heterospecifics. Atlantic salmon prior residents did not change their habitat use in the presence of conspecific or heterospecific invaders. However, Atlantic salmon invaders did lessen riffle habitat use by smallmouth bass prior residents during daytime. Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass displayed different diel activity patterns of movement (Atlantic salmon were more nocturnal; smallmouth bass weremore diurnal), which were affected by heterospecific introductions. Because the two species tended to favor different habitat types and displayed different diel activity patterns, we suggest that under the conditions tested, the level of interspecific competition for habitat was low. Age-0 Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass may be able to avoid intense interspecific competition through spatial and temporal habitat partitioning. These data do not, however, predict the potential for competition under different seasonal or ontogenetic circumstances. © American Fisheries Society 2012.

Seger R.L.,University of Maine, United States | Servello F.A.,University of Maine, United States | Cross R.A.,50 State Street | Keisler D.H.,University of Missouri
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

We studied nutritional ecology of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Maine, including active and hibernating bears during 5 years, across three study areas, using nitrogen stable isotope analyses of blood samples (n = 152). Our central finding, in two study areas, is positive correlation between body mass and δ15N. This suggests use of large body size to acquire or guard food resources that have relatively high δ15N, consistent with importance of ungulates as food for the largest bears in Maine. In these two study areas, hibernating bears across the spectrum of body mass showed greater δ15N during 2 years of beechnut (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) scarcity compared with 2 years of beechnut abundance. Adiposity, measured by serum leptin, was greater in hibernating bears following a season of beechnut abundance compared with one of beechnut scarcity. Total litter mass correlated positively with maternal serum leptin and negatively with maternal δ15N, supporting the importance of mast, including beechnuts, to reproductive success of bears in Maine. In the third study area, bears across the spectrum of body mass had greater δ15N in all years, consistent with food resources relatively high in 15N that were available to bears of all sizes.

Mittelhauser G.H.,Maine Natural History Observatory | Allen R.B.,50 State Street | Chalfant J.,Maine Natural History Observatory | Schauffler R.P.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Welch L.J.,Maine Coastal Islands National Wildlife Refuge
Waterbirds | Year: 2016

The status and trends of Maine's island-nesting Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Blackbacked Gull (L. marinus) populations have changed dramatically over the last century. Aerial photographs were used to count nesting Herring and Great Black-backed gulls at all colonies along the coast of Maine, USA, in 2008 and 2013. Population trends were assessed by comparing current survey data to a previous coastwide survey in 1977. The breeding population of Herring Gulls in Maine was estimated at 24,302 pairs nesting on 180 islands during 2008 and 21,488 pairs nesting on 180 islands during 2013. This represents an annual decline of 2.3% in the number of nests in Maine from 2008 to 2013. The breeding population of Great Blackbacked Gulls in Maine was estimated at 10,094 pairs nesting on 197 islands during 2008 and 6,934 pairs nesting on 191 islands during 2013. This represents an annual decline of 6.3% in the number of nests in Maine from 2008 to 2013. Nesting populations for both species appeared to peak in the 1990s. Between 1977 and 2013, the number of Herring Gull nests in Maine declined by 17%, and the number of nesting islands declined by 19%. Great Black-backed Gull populations also declined between 1977 and 2013, with a 30% decline in the number of nests and a 14% decline in the number of islands supporting nesting. The reason for the decline is unknown, but we speculate that these declines may be related to changing food availability around colonies and increased predation rates by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and mammals.

Cox O.N.,50 State Street | Clements W.H.,Colorado State University
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2013

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are known carcinogens and mutagens. This research used the sediment quality triad, an integrated weight-of-evidence approach, to evaluate sediment PAH concentrations, sediment toxicity, and benthic community structure at marina and reference sites in Isle Royale National Park, USA. The highest PAH concentrations were measured at marina locations and exceeded threshold effect concentrations (161μg PAH/g TOC) at one site. Marina locations were dominated by pyrogenic PAHs, indicating anthropogenic sources of these compounds. Survival of the amphipod Hyalella azteca was significantly reduced (p=0.0320) when exposed to sediments from marinas. Although macroinvertebrate abundance and species richness were similar at marina and reference sites, results of multivariate analyses showed that composition of benthic communities varied among sites. In particular, abundance of the PAH-sensitive amphipod, Diporeia spp. was significantly lower at marina sites compared to reference sites. In contrast to patterns observed for organochlorines (e.g., PCBS, dioxins), biota-sediment accumulation factors for PAHs measured in the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia limbata decreased with increasing Kow values, suggesting that the more lipophilic compounds were being metabolized. Increased PAH concentrations, shifts in community composition, low survival of H. azteca, and reduced abundances of Diporeia spp. at marina sites were consistent with the hypothesis that PAHs impacted these areas; however, across all sites these effects were relatively subtle. These results emphasize the need to use a weight-of-evidence approach when investigating effects of environmental contaminants that occur at relatively low concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Maynard D.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Trial J.G.,50 State Street
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2014

Hatchery technology has been employed for the conservation of Pacific (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for over 140 years. The initial societal paradigm was that nature is inefficient and hatcheries could be used to conserve stocks that were over utilized or suffering habitat degradation. Although these early hatcheries failed to meet their conservation objectives, they succeeded in developing the spawning-to-swimup fry culture technology used today. In the 1930s the paradigm shifted to artificial and natural production being equally effective and led to the closure of Federal hatcheries in areas with intact freshwater habitat. Hatcheries were maintained to mitigate for habitat loss from hydropower development. With the development of cost effective smolt production technology by 1960, the paradigm returned to nature being inefficient and ushered in the massive conservation utilization production of Pacific salmon that continues to this day. The early 1990s saw another paradigm shift with nature's inefficiency recognized as being the foundation for evolution to maintain the fitness of salmon in their natural environment. This shift gave rise to a focus for hatchery technology to preserve stocks in their native habitats. Using hatcheries for preservation-conservation has become the norm for Atlantic salmon in the USA and Atlantic Canada and for Pacific salmon stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act in the USA or as species at risk in Canada. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA).

Mittelhauser G.H.,Maine Natural History Observatory | Tudor L.,50 State Street | Connery B.,Acadia National Park
Northeastern Naturalist | Year: 2013

We systematically surveyed the Maine coastline from Washington County to York County to provide baseline data concerning Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper) population status. Focusing on a particular region each winter, we conducted 66 winter surveys by boat along the entire coast of Maine between 2002 and 2007 plus three days surveying from the mainland between Kittery and Biddeford during the winter of 2005-2006. We tallied 13,318 Purple Sandpipers during these surveys. After accounting for birds present but not detected, we estimate that 14,000 to 17,000 Purple Sandpipers wintered annually in Maine between 2002 and 2007. Based on an assessment of historical records and data collected during this study, flocks of≥250 Purple Sandpipers have been reported from 48 sites along the Maine coast. The area from Isle au Haut to Swans Island along the midcoast supports the highest concentrations of wintering Purple Sandpipers in Maine and the largest wintering concentration of Histrionicus histrionicus (Harlequin Ducks) in eastern North America, highlighting the potential importance of this geographic region.

Mittelhauser G.H.,Maine Natural History Observatory | Tudor L.,50 State Street | Connery B.,Acadia National Park
Journal of Field Ornithology | Year: 2012

Although within-year site fidelity to specific wintering sites allows shorebirds to use prior knowledge of resources and microhabitats, such fidelity may also make populations more vulnerable to extirpation in the event of increased predation pressure, habitat loss, or disturbance. In the eastern Atlantic, Purple Sandpipers (Calidris maritima) have been found to be highly faithful to specific sites in wintering areas. However, little is known about the use of wintering areas by these sandpipers along the coast of Maine. We quantified movements of 60 radio-marked Purple Sandpipers in a bay near the mainland and on an offshore cluster of islands along the mid-coast of Maine during two winters (2005-2006 and 2006-2007). Birds marked in early- and mid-December remained until spring migration, with no evidence of onward migration. Mean maximum distances moved did not differ significantly between either males (8.6 ± 1.0 [SE] km; N= 30) and females (7.4 ± 0.8 km; N= 30) or juveniles (9.9 ± 1.6 km; N= 9) and adults (7.8 ± 1.1 km; N= 26). We also detected no monthly (January-May) differences in maximum distances moved. Sixty percent of marked individuals moved ≤5 km between the two most distant relocations and no birds moved >25 km during the 2- to 4-month tracking period. We attribute the high site fidelity primarily to the plentiful prey base in the study area. During a 2-d period with severe cold, feeding areas at locations protected from wave action became encased in ice and birds at these locations moved up to 10 km offshore to sites with less ice. Species with strong site fidelity, like wintering Purple Sandpipers, may be at higher risk in the event of large-scale changes in their food base, increased predation pressure, habitat loss, or disturbance. However, the short-distance movements made when intertidal feeding areas became encased in ice suggest that Purple Sandpipers could potentially move greater distances in response to changing conditions in their wintering areas. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology © 2012 Association of Field Ornithologists.

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