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Phoenix, AZ, United States

Bobrow B.J.,50 North 18th Avenue | Panczyk M.,50 North 18th Avenue | Subido C.,King County Regional EMS System
Current Opinion in Critical Care

Purpose of review: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provides a vital bridge after collapse from cardiac arrest until defibrillation can be performed. However, due to multiple barriers and despite large-scale public CPR training, this life-saving therapy is still not rendered in a majority of cardiac arrest events. As a result, cardiac arrest survival remains very low in most communities. Recent findings: Several large-scale studies have shown the benefits of dispatch-assisted CPR. These studies have confirmed that on-going dispatch-assisted CPR programs that use a simplified and abbreviated set of standardized questions can hasten the recognition of cardiac arrest. Dispatchers can also utilize strategies to help bystanders overcome the obstacles to beginning CPR. In some communities, dispatch-assisted CPR accounts for up to half of all bystander CPR. Dispatch-assisted CPR programs combined with large-scale public CPR training may be what is needed to elevate CPR rates and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest nationally. Summary: This review focuses on the rationale and evolving science behind dispatch CPR instructions, as well as some best practices for implementing and measuring dispatch-assisted CPR with the goal of maximizing its potential to save lives from sudden cardiac arrest. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Patel M.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chen S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Pringle J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Russo E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection

An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Montevideo infections associated with multiple locations of restaurant chain A in Phoenix, AZ, was identified in July 2008. One infected individual reported eating at a chain A catered luncheon where others fell ill; we conducted a cohort study among attendees to identify the vehicle. Food and environmental samples collected at six chain A locations were cultured for Salmonella. Restaurant inspection results were compared among 18 chain A locations. Routine surveillance identified 58 Arizona residents infected with the outbreak strain. Three chain A locations, one of which catered the luncheon, were named by two or more case patients as a meal source in the week prior to illness onset. In the cohort study of luncheon attendees, 30 reported illness, 10 of which were later culture confirmed. Illness was reported by 30 (61%) of 49 attendees who ate chicken and by 0 of 7 who did not. The outbreak strain was isolated from two of these three locations from uncooked chicken in marinade, chopped cilantro, and a cutting board dedicated to cutting cooked chicken. Raw chicken, contaminated before arrival at the restaurant, was the apparent source of this outbreak. The three locations where two or more case patients ate had critical violations upon routine inspection, while 15 other locations received none. Poor hygiene likely led to cross-contamination of food and work areas. This outbreak supports the potential use of inspections in identifying restaurants at high risk of outbreaks and the need to reduce contamination of raw products at the source and prevent cross-contamination at the point of service. Source

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