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Gill J.S.,Research Drive | Bhavsar P.,Clemson University | Chowdhury M.,Clemson University | Johnson J.,Kimley Horn and Associates Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2014

The electrification of vehicles has been accelerated over the last few years due to tighter emission regulations, volatile fuel prices, and progress in standardization as well as improvement of battery technologies. Key hurdles of electric vehicles (EV) to gain a larger share in the automotive market are the cost of the energy storage system (ESS) and the density of the EV charging infrastructure. The achievable range of an EV or full electric driving of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is limited by its battery capacity. The time to recharge the battery is related to the power level of charging as well as allowable charging parameters to protect the battery life. In order to overcome the constraints of limited range of EVs (all electric driving) as well as the cost of ESS, inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) is an interesting technology path to be considered, in particular if applied as opportunity (stop-and-go) or in-motion charging (also called dynamic wireless charging or move and charge). In-motion wireless charging could lead to significant reductions of the vehicle-related cost of electrification but this comes with the price of an infrastructure that needs to be built and maintained. In order to design the ICPT infrastructure and calculate the cost of construction and operation, certain assumptions have to be made with respect to the vehicle specifications, the specification of the charging system itself and the cost of integration into the existing road infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to provide a thorough analysis of the cost associated with the implementation of a dynamic ICPT infrastructure to support the operation of electrified vehicles and to present transportation agencies a business model that can provide a starting point for the development of a new EV infrastructure. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Akpaka P.E.,University of the West Indies | Monecke S.,TU Dresden | Swanston W.H.,University of the West Indies | Swanston W.H.,North Central Regional Health Authority | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2011

Introduction. Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin, a toxin that lyses white blood cells causing extensive tissue necrosis and chronic, recurrent or severe infection. This report documents a confirmed case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strain harboring Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes from Trinidad and Tobago. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a case has been identified and reported from this country. Case presentation. A 13-year-old Trinidadian boy of African descent presented with upper respiratory symptoms and gastroenteritis-like syptoms. About two weeks later he was re-admitted to our hospital complaining of pain and weakness affecting his left leg, where he had received an intramuscular injection of an anti-emetic drug. He deteriorated and developed septic arthritis, necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock with acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to death within 48 hours of admission despite intensive care treatment. The infection was caused by S. aureus. Bacterial isolates from specimens recovered from our patient before and after his death were analyzed using microarray DNA analysis and spa typing, and the results revealed that the S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex 8, were methicillin-susceptible and positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. An autopsy revealed multi-organ failure and histological tissue stains of several organs were also performed and showed involvement of his lungs, liver, kidneys and thymus, which showed Hassal's corpuscles. Conclusion: Rapid identification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates causing severe infections is necessary so as not to miss their potentially devastating consequences. Early feedback from the clinical laboratories is crucial. © 2011 Akpaka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Antonishyn N.A.,Research Drive | Levett P.N.,Research Drive
Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2010

Outbreaks of viral respiratory disease in institutions may be associated with high morbidity and mortality, depending upon the viral etiology and the age and immune status of the affected patients. Control of outbreaks may include isolation andor cohorting, and prohylaxis or treatment with specific antiviral agents may be indicated, all dependent upon the specific cause of the outbreak. Conventional methods of viral diagnosis detect only a limited number of the viruses that are known to cause outbreaks. The availability of sensitive and specific molecular assays has facilitated rapid diagnosis of a wider range of viruses from respiratory outbreaks. Molecular methods have distinct advantages over conventional methods, including the ability to rapidly develop assays for emerging viruses and new variants of existing viruses. In addition, molecular testing allows rapid detection of resistance to antiviral agents or mutations leading to increased virulence. However, high-throughput molecular testing requires batch processes that may compromise the ability to respond quickly to urgent testing demands. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.


Fitterer B.B.,University of Regina | Fitterer B.B.,Research Drive | Antonishyn N.A.,University of Regina | Antonishyn N.A.,Research Drive | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2012

Sandhoff disease is a rare genetic disorder, however, some northern Saskatchewan communities have a high incidence of the disease (for which the causative mutation has not been described). We discovered a novel mutation causing Sandhoff disease in this community and validated a molecular assay to detect the mutant allele. DNA sequencing was used to search for mutations in the HEXB gene from the most recently affected patient. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping assay was subsequently designed and validated to detect a novel single-nucleotide deletion using DNA isolated from newborn screening cards. The c.115delG mutation was found in exon 1 of the HEXB gene from 4 patients with clinical presentation of Sandhoff disease. Herein we describe a novel HEXB mutation that is shared among 4 patients with Sandhoff disease, as well as a validated PCR-based genotyping assay that can reliably detect the mutant allele. Because the 4 patients from this community share a common c.115delG mutation in the coding region of the HEXB gene, it may be possible to offer an effective preventive screening program for Sandhoff disease using this assay. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Sampson J.H.,Research Drive | Sampson J.H.,Duke University | Brady M.,Therataxis LLC | Raghavan R.,Therataxis LLC | And 10 more authors.
Neurosurgery | Year: 2011

Background: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) permits site-specific therapeutic drug delivery within interstitial spaces at increased dosages through circumvention of the blood-brain barrier. CED is currently limited by suboptimal methodologies for monitoring the delivery of therapeutic agents that would permit technical optimization and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Objective: To determine whether a readily available small-molecule MRI contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), could effectively track the distribution of larger therapeutic agents. Methods: Gd-DTPA was coinfused with the larger molecular tracer, I-labeled human serum albumin (I-HSA), during CED of an EGFRvIII-specific immunotoxin as part of treatment for a patient with glioblastoma. Results: Infusion of both tracers was safe in this patient. Analysis of both Gd-DTPA and I-HSA during and after infusion revealed a high degree of anatomical and volumetric overlap. Conclusion: Gd-DTPA may be able to accurately demonstrate the anatomic and volumetric distribution of large molecules used for antitumor therapy with high resolution and in combination with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, and provide additional information about leaks into cerebrospinal fluid spaces and resection cavities. Similar studies should be performed in additional patients to validate our findings and help refine the methodologies we used. Copyright © 2011 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.


Fitterer B.,Research Drive | Hall P.,Research Drive | Hall P.,Emory University | Antonishyn N.,Research Drive | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Sandhoff disease is a rare progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder with a high incidence among certain isolated communities and ethnic groups around the world. Previous reports have shown a high occurrence of Sandhoff disease in northern Saskatchewan. Newborn screening cards from northern Saskatchewan were retrospectively screened in order to investigate the incidence and determine the carrier frequency of Sandhoff disease in these communities. PCR-based screening was conducted for the c.115delG (p.(Val39fs)) variant in the HEXB gene that was previously found in 4 Sandhoff disease patients from this area. The carrier frequency for this allele was estimated to be ~. 1:27. MS/MS-based screening of hexosaminidase activity along with genetic sequencing allowed for the identification of additional variants based on low total hexosaminidase activity and high % hexosaminidase A activity relative to c.115delG carriers. In total 4 pathogenic variants were discovered in the population (c.115delG, c.619A>G, c.1601G>T, and c.1652G>A) of which two are previously unreported (c.1601G>T and c.1652G>A). The combined carrier frequency of these alleles in the study area was estimated at ~. 1:15. Based on the number of cases of Sandhoff disease from this area we estimate the incidence to be ~. 1:390 corresponding to a child being born with the disease every 1-2. years on average. The results from our study were then compared with variants in the HEXB gene from the genomes available from the 1000 Genomes project. A total of 19 HEXB variants were found in the 1092 genomes of which 5 are suspected of having a deleterious effect on hexosaminidase activity. The estimated carrier frequency of Sandhoff disease in Saskatchewan at 1:15 is more than 3 times higher than the carrier frequency in the global sample provided by the 1000 Genomes project at 1:57. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Yarmolenko P.S.,Duke University | Yarmolenko P.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moon E.J.,Duke University | Moon E.J.,Stanford University | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2011

The purpose of this review is to summarise a literature survey on thermal thresholds for tissue damage. This review covers published literature for the consecutive years from 2002-2009. The first review on this subject was published in 2003. It included an extensive discussion of how to use thermal dosimetric principles to normalise all time-temperature data histories to a common format. This review utilises those same principles to address sensitivity of a variety of tissues, but with particular emphasis on brain and testis. The review includes new data on tissues that were not included in the original review. Several important observations have come from this review. First, a large proportion of the papers examined for this review were discarded because time-temperature history at the site of thermal damage assessment was not recorded. It is strongly recommended that future research on this subject include such data. Second, very little data is available examining chronic consequences of thermal exposure. On a related point, the time of assessment of damage after exposure is critically important for assessing whether damage is transient or permanent. Additionally, virtually no data are available for repeated thermal exposures which may occur in certain recreational or occupational activities. For purposes of regulatory guidelines, both acute and lasting effects of thermal damage should be considered. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


Levett P.N.,Research Drive
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2015

Leptospires are spirochetes that may be free-living saprophytes found in freshwater or may cause acute or chronic infection of animals. The family Leptospiraceae comprises three genera: Leptospira, Leptonema, and Turneriella. Within the genus Leptospira, three clades can be distinguished, of pathogens, nonpathogens, and an intermediate group. Leptospires are further divided into serovars; antigenically related serovars are clustered into serogroups for convenience. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.


Sokoro A.A.H.,University of Manitoba | Lepage J.,Research Drive | Antonishyn N.,Research Drive | McDonald R.,Research Drive | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2010

Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene, encoding the human inner mitochondrial membrane ornithine transporter, are thought to be responsible for hyperornithinemiahyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition. HHH syndrome has been detected in several small, isolated communities in northern Saskatchewan (SK). To determine the incidence of HHH syndrome in these communities, a PCR method was set up to detect F188Δ, the common French-Canadian mutation. Neonatal blood spots collected from all newborns from the high risk area were genotyped for the F188Δ mutation for seven consecutive years. Using DNA analysis, we estimated that the heterozygote frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome to be about 1 in 19 individuals, predicting one affected child with HHH syndrome for approximately every 1,500 individuals (1 in 1,550 live births; 1 child every 12 years) in this isolated population. The frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome in this isolated community is probably the highest in the world for this rare disorder. We determined that ornithine levels, by tandem mass spectrometry, were not abnormal in newborns with F188Δ mutation, carriers and normals. Ornithine rises to abnormally high levels at some time after birth well past the time that the newborn screening blood spot is collected. The timing or the reasons for the delayed rise of ornithine in affected children with HHH syndrome have not been determined. Newborn screening for HHH Syndrome in this high risk population is only possible by detection of the mutant allele using DNA analysis. © SSIEM and Springer 2010.


PubMed | Research Drive
Type: | Journal: Current topics in microbiology and immunology | Year: 2014

Leptospires are spirochetes that may be free-living saprophytes found in freshwater or may cause acute or chronic infection of animals. The family Leptospiraceae comprises three genera: Leptospira Leptospira Leptonema Leptonema, and Turneriella Turneriella. Within the genus Leptospira, three clades can be distinguished, of pathogens, nonpathogens, and an intermediate group. Leptospires are further divided into serovars; antigenically related serovars are clustered into serogroups for convenience.

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