Levett P.N.,Research Drive
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Leptospires are spirochetes that may be free-living saprophytes found in freshwater or may cause acute or chronic infection of animals. The family Leptospiraceae comprises three genera: Leptospira, Leptonema, and Turneriella. Within the genus Leptospira, three clades can be distinguished, of pathogens, nonpathogens, and an intermediate group. Leptospires are further divided into serovars; antigenically related serovars are clustered into serogroups for convenience. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015. Source
Yarmolenko P.S.,Duke University |
Yarmolenko P.S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Moon E.J.,Duke University |
Moon E.J.,Stanford University |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hyperthermia
The purpose of this review is to summarise a literature survey on thermal thresholds for tissue damage. This review covers published literature for the consecutive years from 2002-2009. The first review on this subject was published in 2003. It included an extensive discussion of how to use thermal dosimetric principles to normalise all time-temperature data histories to a common format. This review utilises those same principles to address sensitivity of a variety of tissues, but with particular emphasis on brain and testis. The review includes new data on tissues that were not included in the original review. Several important observations have come from this review. First, a large proportion of the papers examined for this review were discarded because time-temperature history at the site of thermal damage assessment was not recorded. It is strongly recommended that future research on this subject include such data. Second, very little data is available examining chronic consequences of thermal exposure. On a related point, the time of assessment of damage after exposure is critically important for assessing whether damage is transient or permanent. Additionally, virtually no data are available for repeated thermal exposures which may occur in certain recreational or occupational activities. For purposes of regulatory guidelines, both acute and lasting effects of thermal damage should be considered. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source
Gill J.S.,Research Drive |
Bhavsar P.,Clemson University |
Chowdhury M.,Clemson University |
Johnson J.,Kimley Horn and Associates Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Procedia Computer Science
The electrification of vehicles has been accelerated over the last few years due to tighter emission regulations, volatile fuel prices, and progress in standardization as well as improvement of battery technologies. Key hurdles of electric vehicles (EV) to gain a larger share in the automotive market are the cost of the energy storage system (ESS) and the density of the EV charging infrastructure. The achievable range of an EV or full electric driving of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is limited by its battery capacity. The time to recharge the battery is related to the power level of charging as well as allowable charging parameters to protect the battery life. In order to overcome the constraints of limited range of EVs (all electric driving) as well as the cost of ESS, inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) is an interesting technology path to be considered, in particular if applied as opportunity (stop-and-go) or in-motion charging (also called dynamic wireless charging or move and charge). In-motion wireless charging could lead to significant reductions of the vehicle-related cost of electrification but this comes with the price of an infrastructure that needs to be built and maintained. In order to design the ICPT infrastructure and calculate the cost of construction and operation, certain assumptions have to be made with respect to the vehicle specifications, the specification of the charging system itself and the cost of integration into the existing road infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to provide a thorough analysis of the cost associated with the implementation of a dynamic ICPT infrastructure to support the operation of electrified vehicles and to present transportation agencies a business model that can provide a starting point for the development of a new EV infrastructure. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source
Akpaka P.E.,University of the West Indies |
Monecke S.,TU Dresden |
Swanston W.H.,University of the West Indies |
Rao A.V.C.,University of the West Indies |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Case Reports
Introduction. Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin, a toxin that lyses white blood cells causing extensive tissue necrosis and chronic, recurrent or severe infection. This report documents a confirmed case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strain harboring Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes from Trinidad and Tobago. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a case has been identified and reported from this country. Case presentation. A 13-year-old Trinidadian boy of African descent presented with upper respiratory symptoms and gastroenteritis-like syptoms. About two weeks later he was re-admitted to our hospital complaining of pain and weakness affecting his left leg, where he had received an intramuscular injection of an anti-emetic drug. He deteriorated and developed septic arthritis, necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock with acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to death within 48 hours of admission despite intensive care treatment. The infection was caused by S. aureus. Bacterial isolates from specimens recovered from our patient before and after his death were analyzed using microarray DNA analysis and spa typing, and the results revealed that the S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex 8, were methicillin-susceptible and positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. An autopsy revealed multi-organ failure and histological tissue stains of several organs were also performed and showed involvement of his lungs, liver, kidneys and thymus, which showed Hassal's corpuscles. Conclusion: Rapid identification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates causing severe infections is necessary so as not to miss their potentially devastating consequences. Early feedback from the clinical laboratories is crucial. © 2011 Akpaka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Kale M.,Research Drive |
Diwan R.,Research Drive |
Renganathan Dinesh F.,Research Drive |
Benton M.,Research Drive |
And 6 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept. Then the various sub-systems within the vehicle were developed; a systems integration approach was used to balance design, engineering and project (cost, weight and timing) compromises. The vehicle provides a flexible interior concept designed to support the active lifestyles of Gen Z that enables a broad range of use cases including stationary activities. The paper discusses the occupant packaging, seating, personalization and customization of the interior, power supply, infotainment, color selection, and interior lighting concepts which provide novel ways to support users in urban environments. © Copyright 2016 SAE International. Source