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Goosby E.,4th Office | Dybul M.,Georgetown University | Fauci A.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Fu J.,4th Office | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has played a key leadership role in the global response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. PEPFAR was inspired by the principles of the historic Monterrey Consensus (United Nations. Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, March 18-22, 2002. New York: United Nations; 2002. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/monterrey/MonterreyConsensus.pdf. Accessed April 21, 2012), which changed the underlying conceptual framework for international development, and therefore global health-a shift from paternalism to partnership that begins with country ownership and requires good governance, a results-based approach, and engagement of all sectors of society. PEPFAR began with a focus on the growing emergency of the HIV/AIDS pandemic by rapidly expanding HIV services, building clinical capacity, implementing strategic information systems, and building a coalition of partners to lead the response. Within the first years of implementation, there was a shift to sustainability, including the advent of Partnership Frameworks. The PEP-FAR reauthorization in 2008 codified into law, the evolution in policies and programs for the next phase of implementation. In 2011 alone, PEPFAR supported nearly 4 million people on treatment, supported programs that provided more than 1.5 million HIV-positive pregnant women with antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission to their children, and supported HIV testing for more than 40 million people. This article provides an overview of how smart investments and partnerships across sectors and US agencies have helped achieve unprecedented results in increasing HIV/AIDS services and engaging partner countries and organizations in sharing the responsibility for an AIDS-free generation. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hongsamoot D.,4th Office | Bumroongsook S.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Lotus pollen tea, in particular, contains potent antioxidants. The first step of this study was the screening for 3 desired qualities of 4 varieties of lotus (Nelumbonucifera Gaertn): Sattabongkutt, Buntharik, Sattabutt, and Patum. The 3 desired qualities were as follows: High pollen yield; potent antioxidant activity; and favorable aroma, flavor, and color to a panel of testers. The results of the screening were the following: one, the pollen productions of a flower of each of the 4 varieties stated above were 1.28, 3.11, 0.43, and 1.83 gm, respectively; two, Buntharik had the highest antioxidant capacity at a trolox equivalent of 499.48 μg/ml or 59.94 mg/serving and at a total polyphenol equivalent of gallic acid of 63.26 μg/ml or 7.59 mg/serving; and three, the highest-rated variety in a hedonic test of overall preference was Buntharik. Thus, the Buntharik tea was chosen for the consumer acceptance studies conducted with 90 tea testers with equal number of males and females. The finding was found that males preferred this tea over females; panelists over 30 years old gave the highest score on overall preference; their level of acceptance was fairly acceptable, at 50%, but their purchase intention was lower, at 27.78%.


Jansen H.A.F.M.,4th Office | Nguyen T.V.N.,General Statistics Office GSO | Hoang T.A.,Center for Creative Initiatives in Health and Population
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: Empirical evidence documents that some risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) are similar across contexts, while others differ considerably. In Vietnam, there was a need to investigate risk factors for IPV to support evidence-based policy and programming. Methods: Using the dataset gathered in the 2010 National Study on Domestic Violence against Women, forty variables were explored in logistic regression analysis, including socio-demographic characteristics of women and their husbands, other experiences with violence, husband’s behaviours, family support, and context-specific variables such as the sex of their children. Results: Fifteen independent factors remained strongly associated with IPV. Significant risk was associated with husbands’ behaviour that supports male power (extra-marital relationships; fighting with other men) and alcohol use. Violence experienced in childhood increased the likelihood of women experiencing and of men perpetrating IPV. Notable was further the association with women’s higher financial contribution to the household and lack of association with not having sons. Conclusions: The findings support theories describing how underlying gender and power imbalance are fundamental causes of IPV and indicate the need for context-specific interventions. © 2016 Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+)


Lance E.W.,4th Office | Matz A.C.,Fairbanks Fish and Wildlife Field Office | Reeves M.K.,4th Office | Verbrugge L.A.,4th Office
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were measured in sediments, bivalves and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in the relatively pristine marine environment of Nelson Lagoon, Alaska. Most PAH levels in Nelson Lagoon were low, and similar to global background concentrations. Sampling media type can significantly influence conclusions of PAH contamination in the environment. Concentration of a broad size range of PAHs was observed in the tissues of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). SPMDs collected some two- to three-ring PAHs from the dissolved water phase, while sediments collected five- to six-ring PAHs that were likely adsorbed onto particulate matter. Benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen, was found in mussels at levels similar to more industrialized harbors in Alaska. © 2012.


Flint P.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Lance E.W.,4th Office | Sowl K.M.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Donnelly T.F.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Field Ornithology | Year: 2010

We examined variation in persistence rates of waterfowl carcasses placed along a series of transects in tundra habitats in western Alaska. This study was designed to assess the effects of existing tower structures and was replicated with separate trials in winter, summer and fall as both the resident avian population and the suite of potential scavengers varied seasonally. Carcass persistence rates were uniformly low, with <50% of carcasses persisting for more than a day on average. Persistence rate varied by carcass age, carcass size, among transects and was lowest in the fall and highest in the summer. We found little support for models where persistence varied in relation to the presence of tower structures. We interpret this as evidence that scavengers were not habituated to searching for carcasses near these structures. Our data demonstrate that only a small fraction of bird carcasses are likely to persist between searches, and if not appropriately accounted for, scavenging bias could significantly influence bird mortality estimates. The variation that we documented suggests that persistence rates should not be extrapolated among tower locations or across time periods as the variation in carcass persistence will result in biased estimates of total bird strike mortality. ©2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ©2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.


Wright F.D.,4th Office | Golden G.S.,Riverside and Los Angeles Counties
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Golinkoff J.,Conservation Fund | Hanus M.,GeoDigital | Carah J.,4th Office
Carbon Balance and Management | Year: 2011

Background: The voluntary carbon market is a new and growing market that is increasingly important to consider in managing forestland. Monitoring, reporting, and verifying carbon stocks and fluxes at a project level is the single largest direct cost of a forest carbon offset project. There are now many methods for estimating forest stocks with high accuracy that use both Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and high-resolution optical remote sensing data. However, many of these methods are not appropriate for use under existing carbon offset standards and most have not been field tested.Results: This paper presents a pixel-based forest stratification method that uses both ALS and optical remote sensing data to optimally partition the variability across an ~10,000 ha forest ownership in Mendocino County, CA, USA. This new stratification approach improved the accuracy of the forest inventory, reduced the cost of field-based inventory, and provides a powerful tool for future management planning. This approach also details a method of determining the optimum pixel size to best partition a forest.Conclusions: The use of ALS and optical remote sensing data can help reduce the cost of field inventory and can help to locate areas that need the most intensive inventory effort. This pixel-based stratification method may provide a cost-effective approach to reducing inventory costs over larger areas when the remote sensing data acquisition costs can be kept low on a per acre basis. © 2011 Golinkoff et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fanning T.,4th Office | Jones C.,Welsh economics Research Unit | Munday M.,Welsh economics Research Unit
Energy | Year: 2014

The paper examines the expected regional employment returns connected to the development of tidal stream and wave-based electricity generation in a UK region - Wales. New employment provides economic development opportunities and the paper demonstrates that there is a need to develop the evidence base on these regional employment impacts. It addresses how far a region which is adjacent to significant marine resources is likely to benefit from a change in the energy generation mix which could feature more wave and tidal stream technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


De Jesus-Lorenzana L.R.,4th Office
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

The field location and daily activity pattern of mango pulp weevil (MPW) adults were determined during dormancy of mango trees in order to refine current integrated pest management strategies particularly, open-center pruning. During dormant stage of the mango trees there are more adult MPW found hiding on branches compared to trunks of mango trees. Among the adult MPW that stayed on branches an average of 4.2 ± 1.64 MPW were located at 1 m horizontal distance away from the trunk and an average of 4.8 ± 0.84 MPW found 2 m away from the trunk. Resting was the most frequent activity and had the longest duration for adult MPW during dormant stage of mango trees. The remaining time was divided between short walk and leg movement. The findings indicate that open-center pruning would be most effective if the inner canopy has to be removed by at least 25% diameter to expose the weevils to direct sunlight. The MPW behavior suggests it actually undergoes a period of dormancy that is specifically a diapause. © 2014, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.


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