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De Jesus-Lorenzana L.R.,4th Office
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

The field location and daily activity pattern of mango pulp weevil (MPW) adults were determined during dormancy of mango trees in order to refine current integrated pest management strategies particularly, open-center pruning. During dormant stage of the mango trees there are more adult MPW found hiding on branches compared to trunks of mango trees. Among the adult MPW that stayed on branches an average of 4.2 ± 1.64 MPW were located at 1 m horizontal distance away from the trunk and an average of 4.8 ± 0.84 MPW found 2 m away from the trunk. Resting was the most frequent activity and had the longest duration for adult MPW during dormant stage of mango trees. The remaining time was divided between short walk and leg movement. The findings indicate that open-center pruning would be most effective if the inner canopy has to be removed by at least 25% diameter to expose the weevils to direct sunlight. The MPW behavior suggests it actually undergoes a period of dormancy that is specifically a diapause. © 2014, International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Flint P.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Lance E.W.,4th Office | Sowl K.M.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Donnelly T.F.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Field Ornithology | Year: 2010

We examined variation in persistence rates of waterfowl carcasses placed along a series of transects in tundra habitats in western Alaska. This study was designed to assess the effects of existing tower structures and was replicated with separate trials in winter, summer and fall as both the resident avian population and the suite of potential scavengers varied seasonally. Carcass persistence rates were uniformly low, with <50% of carcasses persisting for more than a day on average. Persistence rate varied by carcass age, carcass size, among transects and was lowest in the fall and highest in the summer. We found little support for models where persistence varied in relation to the presence of tower structures. We interpret this as evidence that scavengers were not habituated to searching for carcasses near these structures. Our data demonstrate that only a small fraction of bird carcasses are likely to persist between searches, and if not appropriately accounted for, scavenging bias could significantly influence bird mortality estimates. The variation that we documented suggests that persistence rates should not be extrapolated among tower locations or across time periods as the variation in carcass persistence will result in biased estimates of total bird strike mortality. ©2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ©2010 Association of Field Ornithologists. Source

Wright F.D.,4th Office | Golden G.S.,Riverside and Los Angeles Counties
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Fanning T.,4th Office | Jones C.,Welsh economics Research Unit | Munday M.,Welsh economics Research Unit
Energy | Year: 2014

The paper examines the expected regional employment returns connected to the development of tidal stream and wave-based electricity generation in a UK region - Wales. New employment provides economic development opportunities and the paper demonstrates that there is a need to develop the evidence base on these regional employment impacts. It addresses how far a region which is adjacent to significant marine resources is likely to benefit from a change in the energy generation mix which could feature more wave and tidal stream technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Golinkoff J.,Conservation Fund | Hanus M.,GeoDigital | Carah J.,4th Office
Carbon Balance and Management | Year: 2011

Background: The voluntary carbon market is a new and growing market that is increasingly important to consider in managing forestland. Monitoring, reporting, and verifying carbon stocks and fluxes at a project level is the single largest direct cost of a forest carbon offset project. There are now many methods for estimating forest stocks with high accuracy that use both Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and high-resolution optical remote sensing data. However, many of these methods are not appropriate for use under existing carbon offset standards and most have not been field tested.Results: This paper presents a pixel-based forest stratification method that uses both ALS and optical remote sensing data to optimally partition the variability across an ~10,000 ha forest ownership in Mendocino County, CA, USA. This new stratification approach improved the accuracy of the forest inventory, reduced the cost of field-based inventory, and provides a powerful tool for future management planning. This approach also details a method of determining the optimum pixel size to best partition a forest.Conclusions: The use of ALS and optical remote sensing data can help reduce the cost of field inventory and can help to locate areas that need the most intensive inventory effort. This pixel-based stratification method may provide a cost-effective approach to reducing inventory costs over larger areas when the remote sensing data acquisition costs can be kept low on a per acre basis. © 2011 Golinkoff et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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