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Buyse G.M.,University Hospitals Leuven | Voit T.,Institut Universitaire de France | Schara U.,Universitatsklinikum | Straathof C.S.M.,Leiden University | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Cardiorespiratory failure is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on preclinical and phase 2 evidence, we assessed the efficacy and safety of idebenone in young patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were not taking concomitant glucocorticoids. Methods In a multicentre phase 3 trial in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Austria, Italy, Spain, and the USA, patients (age 10-18 years old) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio with a central interactive web response system with a permuted block design with four patients per block to receive idebenone (300 mg three times a day) or matching placebo orally for 52 weeks. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) as percentage predicted (PEF%p) from baseline to week 52, measured with spirometry. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT) and a modified ITT (mITT), which was prospectively defined to exclude patients with at least 20% difference in the yearly change in PEF%p, measured with hospital-based and weekly home-based spirometry. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027884. Findings 31 patients in the idebenone group and 33 in the placebo group comprised the ITT population, and 30 and 27 comprised the mITT population. Idebenone significantly attenuated the fall in PEF%p from baseline to week 52 in the mITT (-3·05%p [95% CI -7·08 to 0·97], p=0·134, vs placebo -9·01%p [-13·18 to -4·84], p=0·0001; difference 5·96%p [0·16 to 11·76], p=0·044) and ITT populations (-2·57%p [-6·68 to 1·54], p=0·215, vs -8·84%p [-12·73 to -4·95], p<0·0001; difference 6·27%p [0·61 to 11·93], p=0·031). Idebenone also had a significant effect on PEF (L/min), weekly home-based PEF, FVC, and FEV1. The effect of idebenone on respiratory function outcomes was similar between patients with previous corticosteroid use and steroid-naive patients. Treatment with idebenone was safe and well tolerated with adverse event rates were similar in both groups. Nasopharyngitis and headache were the most common adverse events (idebenone, eight [25%] and six [19%] of 32 patients; placebo, nine [26%] and seven [21%] of 34 patients). Transient and mild diarrhoea was more common in the idebenone group than in the placebo group (eight [25%] vs four [12%] patients). Interpretation Idebenone reduced the loss of respiratory function and represents a new treatment option for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Funding Santhera Pharmaceuticals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University Hospitals Leuven, CHRU de Lille, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, 4Pharma and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuromuscular disorders : NMD | Year: 2016

In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), progressive loss of respiratory function leads to restrictive pulmonary disease and places patients at significant risk for severe respiratory complications. Of particular concern are ineffective cough, secretion retention and recurrent respiratory tract infections. In a Phase 3 randomized controlled study (DMD Long-term Idebenone Study, DELOS) in DMD patients 10-18 years of age and not taking concomitant glucocorticoid steroids, idebenone (900mg/day) reduced significantly the loss of respiratory function over a 1-year study period. In a post-hoc analysis of DELOS we found that more patients in the placebo group compared to the idebenone group experienced bronchopulmonary adverse events (BAEs): placebo: 17 of 33 patients, 28 events; idebenone: 6 of 31 patients, 7 events. The hazard ratios (HR) calculated by patient (HR 0.33, p=0.0187) and for all BAEs (HR 0.28, p=0.0026) indicated a clear idebenone treatment effect. The overall duration of BAEs was 222 days (placebo) vs. 82 days (idebenone). In addition, there was also a difference in the use of systemic antibiotics utilized for the treatment of BAEs. In the placebo group, 13 patients (39.4%) reported 17 episodes of antibiotic use compared to 7 patients (22.6%) reporting 8 episodes of antibiotic use in the idebenone group. Furthermore, patients in the placebo group used systemic antibiotics for longer (105 days) compared to patients in the idebenone group (65 days). This post-hoc analysis of DELOS indicates that the protective effect of idebenone on respiratory function is associated with a reduced risk of bronchopulmonary complications and a reduced need for systemic antibiotics.


PubMed | University Hospitals Leuven, Gottfried von Preyersches Kinderspital, Leiden University, 4Pharma and 7 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2015

Cardiorespiratory failure is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on preclinical and phase 2 evidence, we assessed the efficacy and safety of idebenone in young patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were not taking concomitant glucocorticoids.In a multicentre phase 3 trial in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Austria, Italy, Spain, and the USA, patients (age 10-18 years old) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio with a central interactive web response system with a permuted block design with four patients per block to receive idebenone (300 mg three times a day) or matching placebo orally for 52 weeks. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) as percentage predicted (PEF%p) from baseline to week 52, measured with spirometry. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT) and a modified ITT (mITT), which was prospectively defined to exclude patients with at least 20% difference in the yearly change in PEF%p, measured with hospital-based and weekly home-based spirometry. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027884.31 patients in the idebenone group and 33 in the placebo group comprised the ITT population, and 30 and 27 comprised the mITT population. Idebenone significantly attenuated the fall in PEF%p from baseline to week 52 in the mITT (-305%p [95% CI -708 to 097], p=0134, vs placebo -901%p [-1318 to -484], p=00001; difference 596%p [016 to 1176], p=0044) and ITT populations (-257%p [-668 to 154], p=0215, vs -884%p [-1273 to -495], p<00001; difference 627%p [061 to 1193], p=0031). Idebenone also had a significant effect on PEF (L/min), weekly home-based PEF, FVC, and FEV1. The effect of idebenone on respiratory function outcomes was similar between patients with previous corticosteroid use and steroid-naive patients. Treatment with idebenone was safe and well tolerated with adverse event rates were similar in both groups. Nasopharyngitis and headache were the most common adverse events (idebenone, eight [25%] and six [19%] of 32 patients; placebo, nine [26%] and seven [21%] of 34 patients). Transient and mild diarrhoea was more common in the idebenone group than in the placebo group (eight [25%] vs four [12%] patients).Idebenone reduced the loss of respiratory function and represents a new treatment option for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.Santhera Pharmaceuticals.


Joensuu H.,University of Helsinki | Sperinde J.,Monogram Biosciences | Leinonen M.,4Pharma | Huang W.,Monogram Biosciences | And 12 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: It is unknown how a very high tumor total HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) content (H2T) influences outcome in early breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. Patients and methods: H2T was measured using a novel quantitative assay (HERmark®) from formalin-fixed tumor tissue of 899 women who participated in the FinHer trial (ISRCTN76560285). In a chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) test, 197 (21.9%) patients had HER2-positive cancer and were randomly assigned to receive trastuzumab or control. Results: Cancer H2T levels varied 1808-fold. High H2T levels were correlated with a positive HER2 status by CISH (P < 0.0001). A nonlinear association was present between H2T and the hazard of distant recurrence in a subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis in CISH-positive disease. Patients with very high H2T (defined by ≥ 22-fold the median of HER2-negative cancers; 13% of CISH-positive cancers) did not benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab [hazard ratio (HR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-4.62; P = 0.75], whereas the rest of the patients with HER2-positive disease by CISH (87%) did benefit (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.28-1.00; P = 0.050). Conclusion: Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with very high tumor HER2 content may benefit less from adjuvant trastuzumab compared with those whose cancer has more moderate HER2 content. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Eggert K.,University of Marburg | Skogar O.,Lanssjukhuset Ryhov | Amar K.,Royal Bournemouth Hospital | Luotonen L.,Orion Pharma | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2010

The study objective was to assess the efficacy, safety and feasibility of switching from levodopa/benserazide (LB) or levodopa/carbidopa (LC) to levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing-off. This was a multicenter, openlabel, 6-week study; the primary outcome was success rate based on the patient-assessed Clinical Global Impression of Change (P-CGI-C). Secondary outcomes included investigator- assessed CGI-C (I-CGI-C), change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor/non-motor wearing-off symptoms and quality of life-visual analog scale (QoL-VAS). After switching to LCE, 77% of patients reported an 'improvement' (p < 0.0001 vs. patients reporting 'no change or worsening'). Significant improvements were seen in I-CGI-C, UPDRS and QoLVAS, regardless of prior therapy. Oral levodopa dosing was increased in 28% of patients; the primary outcome remained significant when these patients were excluded. The data suggest that switching from LB/LC to LCE provided a significant benefit in PD patients with wearing-off. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Joensuu H.,University of Helsinki | Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P.-L.,University of Tampere | Huovinen R.,University of Turku | Jukkola-Vuorinen A.,University of Oulu | And 15 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

Background. Little information is available about survival outcomes of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with adjuvant capecitabine-containing chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab. Patients and methods. One thousand and five hundred patients with early breast cancer were entered to the Finland Capecitabine trial (FinXX) between January 2004 and May 2007, and were randomly assigned to receive either three cycles of adjuvant TX (docetaxel, capecitabine) followed by three cycles of CEX (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, capecitabine; TX-CEX) or three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, fluorouracil; T-CEF). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). The study protocol was amended in May 2005 while study accrual was ongoing to allow adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive cancer. Of the 284 patients with HER2-positive cancer accrued to FinXX, 176 (62.0%) received trastuzumab after amending the study protocol, 131 for 12 months and 45 for nine weeks. The median follow-up time was 6.7 years. Results. Patients with HER2-positive cancer who received trastuzumab had better RFS than those who did not (five-year RFS 89.2% vs. 75.9%; HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.72; p = 0.001). Patients treated with trastuzumab for 12 months or nine weeks had similar RFS. There was no significant interaction between trastuzumab administration and the type of chemotherapy. Four (2.3%) patients treated with trastuzumab had heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, three of these received capecitabine. Conclusion. Adjuvant trastuzumab improves RFS of patients treated with TX-CEX or T-CEF. Few patients had cardiac failure. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P.-L.,University of Tampere | Hjalm-Eriksson M.,Karolinska University Hospital | Thellenberg-Karlsson C.,Umeå University | Astrom L.,Uppsala University Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Radical radiotherapy (RT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy is currently the standard treatment for elderly patients with localized intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer (PC). To increase the recurrence-free and overall survival, we conducted an adjuvant, randomized trial using docetaxel (T) in PC patients (Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial 13). Methods: The inclusion criteria are the following: Men >18 and ≤75 years of age, WHO/ECOG performance status 0-1, histologically proven PC within 12 months before randomization and one of the following: T2, Gleason 7 (4+3), PSA > 10; T2, Gleason 8-10, any PSA; or any T3 tumors. Neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy is mandatory for all patients. The patients were randomized to receive six cycles of T (75 mg m-2 d 1. cycle 21 d) or no docetaxel after radical RT (with a minimum tumor dose of 74 Gy). This study identifier number is NTC 006653848 (http://www.clinicaltrials.org). Results: In this preplanned safety analysis of 100 patients, T treatment induced grade (G) 3 adverse events (AEs) in 15 patients (30%) and G4 AEs in 30 patients (60%), mainly due to bone marrow toxicity. Neutropenia G3-4 was observed in 72% of the patients, febrile neutropenia was found in 24% of patients, neutropenic infection in 10% of patients and G3 infection without neutropenia in 4% of patients. Nonhematological G3 AEs were rare: Anorexia, diarrhea, mucositis, nausea, pain (1 patient each) and fatigue (5). Other severe serious AEs related to T were pulmonary embolism and renal failure. However, only three patients discontinued T before completing the planned six cycles. No deaths had occurred. No patients in the control arm experienced G3-4 toxicities at 12 weeks after the randomization. Conclusions: Adjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy after radiotherapy has a higher frequency of neutropenia than previous studies on patients with metastatic disease. Otherwise, the treatment was quite well tolerated. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Rudolph G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Dimitriadis K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Buchner B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heck S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Background: The authors investigated the correlation of protan and tritan color vision with disease characteristics in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The authors also characterized the therapeutic potential of idebenone in protecting patients from developing dyschromatopsia in LHON. Methods: Color contrast data of 39 LHON patients participating in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study were evaluated. Patients reported disease onset <5 years before enrolment and were genetically confirmed. Protan and tritan color contrast sensitivity was measured using a computer graphics method in patients receiving idebenone (Catena; 900 mg/d; N = 28) or placebo (N = 11) for 6 months. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.1 years, 87.2% were men, 76.9% carried the m11778G>A mutation, and mean duration since onset was 2 years. Assessing protan and tritan color vision at baseline revealed a high degree of color confusion even in young patients (<25 years) and with a short history of disease (<1 year). Treatment with idebenone improved tritan color vision compared with placebo (P = 0.008 at week 24); a similar trend was seen for protan. The effect of idebenone was most prominent in patients with discordant visual acuity (interocular difference of logMAR >0.2). In this subgroup, the treatment effect at week 24 was 20.4% (P = 0.005) in favor of idebenone for the tritan color domain and 13.5% (P = 0.067) for the protan domain. Conclusion: This study confirms that protan and tritan color confusion is an early symptom in LHON. Treatment with idebenone can protect from loss of color vision, particularly in patients who are at imminent risk of further vision loss. © 2012 by North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society.


Melamies M.,University of Helsinki | Vainio O.,University of Helsinki | Spillmann T.,University of Helsinki | Junnila J.,4Pharma | Rajamaki M.M.,University of Helsinki
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Orally administered corticosteroids are commonly used to treat chronic respiratory disease, but adverse effects suggest that the inhalation route may be safer. To compare the systemic effects of inhaled and oral corticosteroids, a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted. Six healthy neutered female Beagle dogs were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: (1) budesonide inhalation (200. μg twice daily); (2) fluticasone inhalation (250. μg twice daily); (3) oral prednisolone (1. mg/kg once daily); and (4) placebo inhalation (room air twice daily). Each treatment and wash-out period lasted 4. weeks. The endocrine status of each dog was assessed on days 0, 28 and 35 using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. The effects of treatments were assessed using a linear mixed effects model.After the 4. week treatment period, a significant decrease was observed in the basal serum cortisol level of the prednisolone group (P< 0.03), and a decrease was also seen in the ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol levels of both the prednisolone and fluticasone groups (P< 0.001), compared with the budesonide group in which no suppression was detected. The results showed that cortisol production in dogs was strongly suppressed by oral prednisolone and by inhaled fluticasone. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Metz G.,Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holding | Coppard N.,Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holding | Cooper J.M.,University College London | Delatycki M.B.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2013

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyse disease progression in Friedreich's ataxia as measured by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Single ratings from 603 patients with Friedreich's ataxia were analysed as a function of disease duration, age of onset and GAA repeat lengths. The relative contribution of items and subscales to the total score was studied as a function of disease progression. In addition, the scaling properties were assessed using standard statistical measures. Average total scale progression per year depends on the age of disease onset, the time since diagnosis and the GAA repeat length. The age of onset inversely correlates with increased GAA repeat length. For patients with an age of onset 14 years associated with a longer repeat length, the average yearly rate of decline was 2.5 ± 0.18 points in the total International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale for the first 20 years of disease duration, whereas patients with a later onset progress more slowly (1.8 ± 0.27 points/year). Ceiling effects in posture, gait and lower limb scale items lead to a reduced sensitivity of the scale in the severely affected population with a total score of >60 points. Psychometric scaling analysis shows generally favourable properties for the total scale, but the subscale grouping could be improved. This cross-sectional study provides a detailed characterization of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. The analysis further provides rates of change separated for patients with early and late disease onset, which is driven by the GAA repeat length. Differences in the subscale dynamics merit consideration in the design of future clinical trials applying this scale as a neurological assessment instrument in Friedreich's ataxia. © (2012) The Author.

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