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PubMed | 4Clinics and GSK Vaccines
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children <2 years-old). This review represents the first analysis of the overall impact of a second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage and all the major pneumococcal disease manifestations in a single, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-nave, developing country. A total of 15 published articles and 13 congress abstracts were included in the analysis. In children <5 years-old, studies showed a positive impact of PHiD-CV on the incidence of vaccine-type and any-type invasive pneumococcal disease (including decreases in pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality), on pneumonia incidence and mortality, and on otitis media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population.

PubMed | University of South Dakota, City Medical Center, CIBER ISCIII, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cancer | Year: 2016

The control arm of the phase III VIVIANE (Human PapillomaVIrus: Vaccine Immunogenicity ANd Efficacy; NCT00294047) study in women >25 years was studied to assess risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to detectable cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The risk of detecting CIN associated with the same HPV type as the reference infection was analysed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models. Infections were categorised depending upon persistence as 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) or infection of any duration. The 4-year interim analysis included 2,838 women, of whom 1,073 (37.8%) experienced 2,615 infections of any duration and 708 (24.9%) experienced 1,130 6MPIs. Infection with oncogenic HPV types significantly increased the risk of detecting CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) versus non-oncogenic types. For 6MPI, the highest risk was associated with HPV-33 (hazard ratio [HR]: 31.9 [8.3-122.2, p < 0.0001]). The next highest risk was with HPV-16 (21.1 [6.3-70.0], p < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen for infections of any duration. Significant risk was also observed for HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-45. Concomitant HPV infection or CIN grade 1 or greater associated with a different oncogenic HPV type increased risk. Most women (79.3%) with an HPV infection at baseline cleared detectable infections of any duration, and 69.9% cleared a 6MPI. The risk of progression of HPV infection to CIN2+ in women >25 years in this study was similar to that in women 15-25 years in PATRICIA.

Powell N.,University of Cardiff | Cuschieri K.,Royal Infirmary | Cubie H.,Royal Infirmary | Hibbitts S.,University of Cardiff | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Background: Most cervical cancers are attributable to infection with one of fourteen types of human papillomavirus (HPV), but HPV types differ in oncogenic potential. Characterisation of cancers associated with specific HPV types is required to predict the likely impact of current prophylactic vaccines and the potential benefits of vaccine formulations including additional HPV types. Objective: The study aimed to correlate HPV type with histology and age at diagnosis, in Invasive Cervical Cancers (ICCs) from two of the devolved countries of the UK (Wales and Scotland). Study design: Centralised histopathology review and rigorously standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to 592 ICC diagnosed 2001-2006. HPV status was analysed in relation to histology and age at diagnosis. Results: HPV infection was confirmed in 535/592 cases. Among the 497 tumours infected with single HPV types, the three most common types were HPV16 (62% 95%CI: 57.6-66.1), HPV18 (18.9% 95%CI: 15.7-22.6) and HPV45 (5.4% 95%CI: 3.7-7.8). HPV16 or 18 were present in 80.9% of HPV positive cases. Women with tumours associated with HPV types 16, 18 and 45 were on average 10.5 years younger at diagnosis than women with tumours associated with other HPV types. Conclusions: Prophylactic vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 could potentially prevent up to 80.9% of ICC in the populations investigated. Cancers associated with HPV16, 18 and 45 were diagnosed at younger ages, supporting the hypothesis of faster progression than for tumours caused by other HPV types. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Nowakowski A.,Medical University of Lublin | Nowakowski A.,Military Institute of Medicine | de Souza S.C.,4Clinics | Jach R.,Jagiellonian University | And 3 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2015

This study was performed to assess attribution of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) to human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and secondarily to assess reproducibility of HG-CIN/ICC diagnosis obtained in Poland. Formaldehyde fixed, paraffin embedded blocks of HG-CIN/ICC from two distant institutions were sent to a central laboratory together with original histological diagnoses. Central/expert review of histopathological specimens was performed and agreement between local and central/expert diagnoses was calculated. HPV detection and genotyping in the samples was carried out with the use of SPF10-LiPA25 technology. Results were analyzed for 205 HG-CIN and 193 ICC cases with centrally confirmed diagnoses. Kappa coefficients and 95 % confidence intervals for HG-CIN and ICC diagnoses were: 0.13 (0.09;0.17) and 0.19 (0.11;0.26) respectively. Cohen’s kappa coefficients for lesions with representative number of samples ranged from 0.01 for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 to 0.75 for adenocarcinoma. HPV DNA was detected in 96.1 and 91.2 % of the confirmed HG-CIN and ICC specimens respectively. HPV positive HG-CIN was most commonly attributed to HPV types: 16 (62.8), 33 (7.8), 31 (6.6), 52 (3.7), 45 (2.6) and 58 (2.6 %). HPV positive ICC was most commonly attributed to HPV types: 16 (72.1), 18 (10.8), 33 (5.7), 45 (3.4) and 31 (1.7 %). Reproducibility of histological diagnosis of HG-CIN/ICC obtained in Poland generally increases with the severity of lesion and is lowest for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and highest for adenocarcinoma. Over 80 % of ICC cases are vaccine-preventable in Poland. © 2014, The Author(s).

Fritsch D.A.,and Hills Inc. | Allen T.A.,and Hills Inc. | Allen T.A.,7015 College Blvd | Dodd C.E.,and Hills Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2010

Objective-To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. Design-Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. Animals-131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. Procedures-In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. Results-Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

Roush J.K.,Kansas State University | Dodd C.E.,and Hills Inc. | Fritsch D.A.,and Hills Inc. | Allen T.A.,and Hills Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2010

Objective-To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6-omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. Design-Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. Animals-127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics. Procedures-Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6-omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward. Results-Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.

Fritsch D.,and Hills Inc. | Allen T.A.,and Hills Inc. | Dodd C.E.,and Hills Inc. | Jewell D.E.,and Hills Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Food supplemented with fish oil improves clinical signs and weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: Determine whether increasing the amount of fish oil in food provides additional symptomatic improvements in OA. Animals: One hundred and seventy-seven client-owned dogs with stable chronic OA of the hip or stifle. Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial using pet dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive the baseline therapeutic food (0.8% eicosopentanoic acid [EPA] 1 docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or experimental foods containing approximately 2- and 3-fold higher EPA+DHA concentrations. Both veterinarians and owners were blinded as to which food the dog received. On days 0, 21, 45, and 90, serum fatty acid concentrations were measured and veterinarians assessed the severity of 5 clinical signs of OA. At the end of the study (day 90), veterinarians scored overall arthritic condition and progression of arthritis based on their clinical signs and an owner interview. Results: Serum concentrations of EPA and DHA rose in parallel with food concentrations. For 2 of 5 clinical signs (lameness and weight bearing) and for overall arthritic condition and progression of arthritis, there was a significant improvement between the baseline and 3X EPA+DHA foods (P=.04,.03,.001,.0008, respectively) but not between the baseline and the 2X EPA+DHA foods. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Increasing the amount of fish oil beyond that in the baseline food results in dosedependent increases in serum EPA and DHA concentrations and modest improvements in the clinical signs of OA in pet dogs. © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Vintermyr O.K.,University of Bergen | Iversen O.,University of Bergen | Thoresen S.,Abbvie AS | Quint W.,DDL Diagnostic Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective This retrospective registry-based study aimed to assess the human papillomavirus (HPV)-type distribution in primary and recurrent high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 +), and to discriminate pre-existing from newly-acquired infections. Methods Cervical specimens from 58 women (median age (Q1-Q3): 37.6 (31.7-44.9)) who underwent primary (1998-2003) and repeat conizations were confirmed as CIN2 + during expert pathology review. HPV testing was performed using PCR MP-TS123 Luminex for 16 HPV types. Molecular HPV16 E6 and HPV18 LCR DNA sequencing was performed on specimens with persistent HPV16/18. Results All 58 paired cones were HPV positive; 49 had CIN3 + in the primary cone. Forty-seven (95.9%) women with primary CIN3 + and recurrent CIN2 + had persistent high-risk (hr) HPV infection, of which 74.5% were HPV16/18. Two women had probable newly-acquired HPV16/52/56 and HPV39 infections. One woman with persistent HPV52 also had a probable new HPV16 E6 variant in the recurrent CIN2 +. Median time delay (Q1-Q3) between conizations was 2.0 years (1.1-4.0), being shorter for women older than 40 years: 2.6 years (1.1-3.7) than for women younger than 40 years: 6.0 years (2.0-8.7). Primary conization histology revealed CIN3, cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and microinvasive carcinomas in 43 (87.8%), 5 (10.2%) and 1 (2.0%) women, respectively. Primary HPV16- and HPV18-infected CIN3 + had a shorter delay between conizations: 1.8 years (1.2-4.4) and 2.2 years (0.4-NE), respectively, compared to HPV33-: 3.8 years (3.3-7.8) or other HPV type-infected: 8.2 years (6.0-NE) CIN3 +. Conclusions Routine post-conization hr-HPV DNA testing together with cervical cytology may provide a better prediction for potential recurrent disease. Further, primary prevention through adolescent vaccination may prevent CIN2 + and its recurrence. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Taylor S.,Glaxosmithkline | Marchisio P.,University of Milan | Vergison A.,Free University of Colombia | Harriague J.,4Clinics | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of visits to physicians and of antibiotic prescriptions for young children. We systematically reviewed studies on all-cause AOM episodes and physician visits in which impact was attributed to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, either as efficacy or effectiveness. Of 18 relevant publications found, most used the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM). The efficacy of 7vCRM against all-cause AOM episodes or visits was 0-9 in randomized trials and 17-23 in nonrandomized trials. In observational database studies, physician visits for AOM were already declining in the 3-5 years before 7vCRM introduction (mean change,-15; range, +14 to-24) and continued to decline afterward (mean,-19; range, +7 to-48). This vaccine provides some protection against OM, but other factors have also contributed to the recent decline in OM incidence. Future effectiveness studies should thus use better-controlled methods to estimate the true impact of vaccination on AOM. © 2012 The Author.

Leventhal P.S.,4Clinics
European Science Editing | Year: 2013

Although best known as writers of regulatory documents, medical writers also help craft journal articles, medical communication texts and medical education materials. Professional publication writers are medical writers who specialise in writing journal articles. Publication writers provide a valuable service by helping authors avoid the many pitfalls that can cause a manuscript to be rejected. Not only do they help authors write clear, concise and convincing text, they also provide a naïve, unbiased scientific perspective and, importantly, help successfully guide authors through the writing and peerreview processes.

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